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Jrst 'gqt Icnnsslknia gcsabe Caklr^,
ITS OEGAiriZATIOir, AUGUST, 1861.
LIST OF NAMES OF ALL OFFTCEES AND
WHO HAVE EVER BELOI^GED TO THE EEGIMENT, AND REMARKS
ATTACHED TO EACH NAME, NOTING CHANGE, &g.
GENERAL GEORGE D. BATlto,
From August, 1861, to May, 1862.
HON. OWEN JO NEB,
From May, 18G2, to January, 1863.
COL. JOHN P. TAYLOR,
Since January, 1863
KING & BAIRD, PRINTERS, No. 607 SANSOM STREET.
Headquarters, Camp, First Pennsylvania Eeserve Cavalry,
SEPrEMBEB 9th, 1864.
To the Officers and JEnUsted Men of the
First JPennsi/lvania Meserve Cavalry,
Gentlemen : — Knowing the deep interest felt in
the history of the regiment, by every member who
has shared its services, its dangers and hardships,
and is thereby entitled to a portion of its well-earned
merits, I have endeavored to collect the prominent
incidents of its operations ; and during the com-
parative leisure of the last month have arranged
them in a condensed form for publication, that all
who wish might be supplied with a copy.
You will find the following pages to contain a
sketch of the organizing, arming and equipping of
the regiment, a summary of its services from the
time it entered the field to the present date, with
brief descriptions of the part it took in the various
actions in which it was engaged, a tabular statement
of name and date of each. battle and skirmish, date,
route and distance of each march and scout, with
general remarks, &c. Also, the name, rank and date
of commission, of each officer, the name and rank of
each enlisted man, (the latter arranged in companies,
and each company prefaced by a short sketch of its
organization,) with remarks also appended to the
names of both officers and men, noting all changes
that have taken place.
The object, however, in preparing this work, was
not to write a history of the regiment, nor to enter
into a minute or detailed account of its operations,
but simply to furnish a brief summary of its services,
with any other data that might be interesting to its
members. Neither is it supposed that the hasty and
condensed narrations, these pages contain, will elicit
any interest from the public at large, as they are
strictly local in their character; but, if they meet
your approval, it will be answering my fullest ex-
pectations. You will, doubtlessly, discover in their
perusal, numerous omissions and inaccuracies, as
many of the incidents, especially of the first year,
have been sketched from memory, and the numerous
and constant changes incident to a regiment in the
field, renders it very difficult to furnish correct data
in every instance ; but, conscious that you are aware
of the disadvantages labored under in the prepara-
tion of a work of this kind, here in active service,
where our respites from duty are so brief and ir-
regular, I therefore respecfully submit it to your
consideration, trusting that though it may not reach
what you would desire it to be, its contents, may, at
least, not be devoid of interest.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. P. LLOYD,
Adjutant First Penna, Reserve Cmalry,
Strangers to war, and especially to the bligliting
curse of intestinal and fratricidal strife, the year of
1861, as it opened npon our happy and prosperous
nation, with events so new and startling and porten-
tuous of coming evil, found the public- mind resting
in the quiet calm of its accustomed security. True,
for some months previous, the murmur of discord
and dissatisfaction, with an occasional bold and
daring threat or menacing overt act, from the south-
ern half of the nation, betokened a determination of
purpose, more serious and alarming than had, at any
previous period of our history, marked the wrangling
of parties and the clashing of sectional interests.
But, the stormy season of a Presidential campaign
had just passed, and the majority of the people, at
least in the North, expected, as always has been the
case heretofore, that after the conia^icting elements
had spent their fury, and the efforts of the partizan
leaders, either crowned by victory or subdued by de-
feat, the public mind would subside into its usual
quiet and decorum. Still, there were some, who,
marking the course of events for years, saw, in the
unusual signs of the times, foreshadowings of the
storm that was soon to burst on our devoted land.
As day after day of the new year passed, events
stranger and more startling were developed, and thus
matters continued growing more desperate until the
fourth of March, when a new Chief Executive was
inaugurated and the reins of Government passed into
the hands of another Administration ; but, instead of
these events having any effect in allaying the angry
and discordant elements, the storm-cloud of civil
commotion grew rapidly darker and more threat-
The warlike preparations of the South now too
began to arouse the loyal people of the nation to the
stern fact that treason, real earnest treason, was rap-
idly spreading its contaminating' bane over large
tracts of the nation's territory, rife for any deed, and
ready in its daring audacity tp attempt any crime,
and that rebellion in gigantic proportion was upon
All who lived through those days of intense excite-
ment, from March to the middle of April, when the
traitor's cannon first defiled our nation's ensign as it
floated over the wall of Sumter, remember, and will
doubtlessly cherish, while memory retains vitality to
perform her offices, the anxiety which wrapped every
loyal heart in a murky pall, during those hours of
painful suspense, when the nation hung vibrating be-
tween war, just and honorable, as we are now prose-
cuting it, and ignominious peace with anarchy, or at
best — traitor's rule. Long, too, will be remembered
the days of almost frantic excitement that followed^
the dishonoring of our flag at Charleston. How, as
with one giant throb of the nation's great heart, her
loyal sons arose, and from workshop, from store,
from farm, from the nursery of learning, the lawyer's
office and the minister's sacred desk, men of every
avocation, circumstance and calling, rushed forward
to vindicate its insulted dignity.
The first call for seventy -five thousand men, being
immediately filled, thousands who applied were un-
able to get into the service. These, forming in com-
panics throughout the country, remained to await
During this time the material of the First Penn-
sylvania Reserve Cavalry was principally col-
lected, as was also the balance of the Reserve Corps,
most of which, however, had the advantage of some
months drilling in camps of instruction in an organ-
ized condition, while this regiment remained scat-
tered in parts of companies, over the State, few of
them having an official existence.
The companies remained in this unorganized and
scattered condition, until about the middle of July
when a few of them assembled at Camp Curtin, and
commenced the formation of a regiment.
(Notes of Organization furnished by Surgeon G. B. Hotchkin.)
'' The First Cavalry regiment of Pennsylvania Re-
serve Volunteer Qorps was organized at Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania, August, 1861, by His Excellency, Gov-
ernor Andrew Gr. Curtin, under the provisions of a
special law authorizing the Governor to raise, arm
and equip a force consisting of twelve regiments of
infantry, one rifle, one artillery and one cavalry regi-
ment. This was to be a State force under the con-
trol of the Governor, to be held in readiness to meet
any emergencies that might arise from the events of
''The defeat of General McDowell, at Bull Run,
July 21st, 1861, occasioned just such an emergency
before the organization was complete. Pive com-
panies of cavalry, which were then in Camp Curtin,
were immediately organized by the election of Cap-
tain Hastings, XJ. S. A., as Colonel, and Captain
Owen Jones, as Major, and the battalion sent to
Washington, with the rest of the Reserve Corps,
where they were soon joined by two additional com-
panies from Harrisburg. '^
'' The removal of the regiment from the State be-
10 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
fore it was completely organized, equipped and trained
for service, as contemplated by the law of its organi-
zation, caused much feeling of disappointment in the
State, and the officer selected for the command of the
regiment, declined to go with it in its unorganized
'' The seven companies remained in camp near
Washington, about a month, with a deficiency of
organization, which threatened total failure of the
attempt to form a regiment.
''The field and company officers present, being
little schooled in military tactics and discipline,
though quite anxious to become soldiers and to make
their men such, fully realized their deficiencies, and
anxiously sought for assistance. '^
" Through the influence and advice of General
Stoneman, then Chief of Cavalry, in conjunction
with the Governor of Pennsylvania and his advisers,
the service of Lieutenant George D. Bayard, was
secured as Colonel, and he assumed command of the
regiment about the first of September, 1861, and
immediately commenced drilling, and fitting it for
''About this time, also, three companies from a
disbanded regiment were attached to this command,
and its organization completed, by the election of
of Captain Jacob Higgins, to the post of Lieutenant-
Colonel, and the appointment of S. D. Barrows as
Adjutant, and Lieutenant R. R. Corson, Regimental-
The regiment then consisted of Companies A,
Captain Robison ; B, Captain Stadelman ; C, Cap-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 11
tain Tajlor; T), Captain Gile ; E, Captain Wolf; F,
Captain Harper ; Q, Captain Gardner ; H, Captain
J. B. Davidson ; I, Captain McIS'ulty, and K, Captain
" The a|)pointment of Surgeon David Stanton, As-
sistant Surgeon, Samuel Alexander and Chaplain J.
Hervey Beale, shortly after, completed the regimental
" January, the seventh, 1862, two independent com-
panies, Company L, Captain Hoffeditz, and Company
M, Captain Richards, were attached to the regiment,
thus making it a complete regiment of twelve com-
^' The regiment was originally armed by the United
States Government, with sabre and pistol to each
man, and ten carbines to each company, the number
of carbines having been increased at different times,
until the whole regiment was ultimately supplied with
them, in Sej)tember, 1862.
" The greater part of the original horses of the
regiment were selected with great care, and pur-
chased by some of our own officers in the State of
Pennsylvania ; the remainder were selected by Col-
onel Bayard himself, from the Government horses at
Washington. These horses, under good care and
training during the succeeding winter became nota-
bly the best regiment of horses in the United States,
and some of them remain ^till the best horses, after a
half dozen new lots have been worn out in the service
of the regiment."
'' The material of this regiment was choice in its
character, the Governor refusing all applications for
12 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
the formation of companies for the regiment, from
large towns and cities, it was gathered from various
sections of a great State, at a time when infantry
was the favorite arm of service. The men who joined
this regiment, chose the service for the love of it,
and because they were horsemen. They were mostly
country laborers and farmers, accustomed to the use
and care of horses, and at least good, if not properly
trained riders. Yery few of our men were dismounted
by accident or awkwardness during their drilling, or
since then, in the service they have performed. Most
of them were accustomed to labor and fatigue, and
well calculated to endure the hardships incident to a
cavalryman in the field. A few old soldiers, among
both officers and men, contributed much more than
their personal labor toward the proper training of the
" The greatest defect in material seems to have
arisen, either from want of proper examination of re-
cruits, or want of knowledge of the requirements of
cavalry service, on the part of examining surgeons.
This has been a fruitful cause of discharges for dis-
ability in our regiment, but most of our deficient men
would have been fully able to do infantry service, al-
though from various causes unable to endure service
in the saddle.'^
''After Colonel Bayard was established in his posi-
tion, and his regiment armed, equipped and mounted,
the work of drilling was immediately commenced, and
prosecuted with all the energy for which that officer
was so much noted. This was not done after the
usual manner of drilling cavalry by a course of
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 13
gradual training, but tlie attempt was made to bring
the regiment to the most effective condition for ac-
tual contact with the enemy, in the shortest possible
time, as the cavalry arm of the service must be made
and not improved merely. To this end the officers
were called to meet the Colonel, once or twice daily,
to study tactics, and the fear of the Examining Board
kept constantly before them to stimulate their ener-
gies to the utmost. Company, squadron and regi-
mental drill and sabre exercise, on foot or mounted,
were pushed to the utmost, morn#ig and afternoon
of every day, under the personal direction of Colonel
Bayard and his field officers, while various scouts and
daily picket duty, by detail, served to impress their
lessons by actual practice of duty near the enemy. '^
WINTER QUARTERS AT PIERPONT.
We crossed the Potomac river, as the advance of
General McCalPs command, on the 10th day of Oc-
tober, 1861, and were stationed at Camp Pierpont,
at the extreme right of the Army of the Potomac.
Here we picketed by details of one officer, and thirty
men, daily, during the winter, also, making frequent
expeditions to Drainesville and toward Leesburg.
The first skirmish of the regiment, occurred near
Drainesville, on the 2tth day of JS^ovember, 1861.
The regiment, had been ordered out on the previous
evening, to scout the country beyond Difficult creek,
a small stream crossing the pike, about six miles
west of camp, and make a descent on Drainesville, a
village some seven miles further on.
Marching all night and arriving at the village just
14 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
before daylight, the houses were surrounded, and a
search for guerrillas, reported to harbor there, com-
Half a dozen suspicious persons were arrested, and
the regiment, after an hour's halt, took up its march
for camp. When some two miles from the town, the
head of the column was 'fired on by guerrillas con-
cealed in the pine thickets, by the roadside. Detach-
ments immediately dismounted and pushed into the
woods, and in a few minutes had killed or captured
the whole partyiof the enemy. We lost, Assistant
Surgeon Samuel Alexander and private Jos. Hugh-
ling, Company D, killed, and two other men severely
wounded. Colonel Bayard was slightly wounded
and his horse killed under him.
BATTLE OF DRAINESVILLE.
Five companies, under Lieutenant- Colonel Jacob
Higgins, participated actively in the battle of Draines-
Tille, December 20th, 1861, and General Ord highly
complimented Colonel Higgins for the valuable ser-
vice the cavalry rendered during the action. At the
opening of the engagement, the cavalry was ordered
to push forward and compel the enemy to unmask his
position This was done in gallant style by Lieut-
enant-Colonel Jacob Higgins, with H and I compa-
nies, dashing forward on the road, south of the town,
while C, D and E coriipanies charged directly through
the town, and pushed on, until the enemy, opening
on their flank and rear, compelled them to withdraw
to prevent being cut off. The infantry now becoming
engaged, the cavalry v/as ordered to the support of
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 15
Easton's battery, and remained drawn up in the rear
of it, though subjected to a heavy, artillery fire, until
the close of the action, which lasted about one hour
and twenty minutes, and ended in the total rout of
Here was the first time that any part of the regi-
ment had been called uponlo face the enemy in battle
array, and its action on this occasion very truly re-
flected, or rather foreshadowed, its subsequent his-
The winter of '61 and '62 was spent at Langley, or
Camp Pierpont, some four miles west of Chain Bridge,
the regiment being engaged in the services before
mentioned, until the 10th of March, when winter
quarters were broken up and campaigning com-
OPENING OF SPRING CAMPAIGN OP 1862.
The regiment then marched with the Pennsyl-
vania Reserve Corps, in the grand advance toward
Manassas, and after about ten days most exhausting
service, exposed to pelting rain, sleet and snow
storms, returned to Falls Church, where we remained
until General McDowell's advance toward the Eap-
pahannock. Starting on the 9th of April, we marched
via of Fairfax Court House and Manassas Junction
to Catletts Station, which we reached on the 11th,
and there performed scouting and picket duty, till
the middle of the month.
On the 13th we started on a recoimoissance toward
Falmouth, and having driven in the enemy's outposts
and ascertained his situation, returned to camp.
16 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
On the l^th, two battalions of our regiment sup-
ported by a portion of the Second New York Cav-
alry, marched toward Falmouth, as the advance
guard of General McDowell's army. That day we
skirmished with the enemy's outpost, from Hart-
wood Church toward Falmouth and during the night
were led into an ambuscade near the town, and after
severe fighting were compelled to rest till daylight.
Having marched and skirmished ail day and until
a late hour of the night of the Itth, the men were
permitted to take a few hours' sleep at the feet of
their horses, and were again in the saddle, ready to
move forward, at two o'clock, on the morning of the
Every precaution having been taken to prevent any
noise in advancing that might warn the en^ny of our
approach, the column commenced its silent march
toward the town, squadron L and M leading the ad-
The morning was cloudy, and so intensdy dark,
that the enemy's works, which consisted of a
strong barricade, constructed of rails laid alternately
lengthwise and crosswise, were not seen, until the
advance guard was right on them. The column w^as
thus brought to a halt, in a narrow road which it
completely filled, and almost instantly a heavy fire of
musketry was opened in the faces of the men.
The regiment recoiling before this fierce and un-
expected attack, was immediately withdrawn from
the road, and its operations directed against the
flanks of the enemy's position, in a series of rapid
and brilliant charges, which, however, were ineflfectua]
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. It
in dislodging liim, until daylight, when he fell back,
and we occupied the town.
The history of this war will doubtlessly present, in
all its records of daring, few parallels to this hazard-
ous dash. A body of cavalry charging on a town,
garrisoned by double its number of infantry, along
an unknown road, and through the blinding dark-
ness of a rayless night. We were not veterans then,
neither were our generals.
In this action, Company E, commanded by Captain
Marcus L. French ; Company F, commanded by Cap-
tain Alexander Davidson ; Company K, commanded
by Captain J. H. Williams ; Company L, commanded
by Captain W. A. Sands, and Company M, com-
manded by Captain J. H. Richards, all under the
charge of Lieutenant- Colonel Owen Jones were closely
engaged. Companies G, H, and I, under Major K
J. Falls, acted as a reserve and were not engaged
until the next morning.
Colonel Bayard, in an official report to the Gov-
ernor of the State of Pennsylvania, complimented the
regiment in the highest terms, for its conduct on the
The first day after the action the regiment eji-
camped a short distance from Falmouth, and a few
days afterward moved several miles down the neck,
and commenced doing picket duty along the Rappa-
hannock river, and scouting on the Peninsula below.
While engaged in this we had frequent skirmishes
with the enemy across the river, and on one occasion,
when he attempted to recapture a schooner from the
First New Jersey Cavalry, on the night of the 13th
18 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
of May, Companies F, Gt, H, L, and M, turned ont,
and after a brief but sliarp skirmisli, drove him off,
brought the schooner to our own shore of the river,
and rescued the men on board, several of whom were
The following is a report of the affair, by Colonel
Jones, Commanding Regiment.
Headqnarters, Pirst Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry,
Mat 14tli, 1863.
'' General George D. Bayard.
'' General : — I have the honor to report that on the
evening of yesterday. May 13th, heavy firing was
heard at my camp from the line of our pickets on the
Rappahannock. I soon learned that it proceeded
from a party of the enemy, and was directed at a
vessel in charge of the First New Jersey Cavalry. I
at once ordered the carbineers of my command to
proceed to the river bank, and finding that the vessel
was fastened to the north bank of river, and in charge
of our pickets, I ordered my men to be placed in
position to cover the removal ef two men of the First
New Jersey Cavalry, that were on board of her, and
had been badly wounded by the fire of the enemy,
giving orders not to fire, unless first fired upon.
After the first, and just as the second man was being
removed from the vessel, a heavy fire was opened
upon her by the enemy, and was instantly replied to
by a heavy and well sustained fire from my men,
posted along the river bank. As soon as the enemy's
fire ceased, the order to cease firing was given, and
the remaining wounded men removed with safety.
''It gives me great pleasure to state that in the
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 19
effort, none of my men were hurt, and that the officers
and men displayed the utmost promptitude bravery
Colonel Bayard having received appointment as
Brigadier- General, Lieutenant- Colonel Owen Jones
was chosen Colonel, and took command of the regi-
ment May 5th, 1862.
Mcdowell's advance may 25th and operations in
the shenandoah valley.
On the afternnon of the 25th of May, when General
McDowell commenced his advance to join forces with
General McClellan, the regiment crossed the Rappa-
hannock at Fredericksburg, and was sent forward to
find the enemy. We advanced rapidly towards Rich-
mond, and reached a point on the Pamunky river,
within fifteen miles of General McClellan's right
wing on the evening of the 2nh. The enemy falling
back before us, and the whole route showing evidence
of his hasty retreat. At this juncture, when all were
jubilant over the prospects of soon joining the grand
army of the Peninsula, against the Rebel Capitol, we
received orders to return immediately to Fredericks-
burg. Recrossed the Rappahannock at that place
on the evening of the 28th, and marched at once, via
of Catlett's Station and Thoroughfare Gap to Front
Royal, which we reached on the 1st day of June.
With but an hour's rest, we proceeded at full gallop,
nearly to Strasburg, a distance of about twelve miles,
when crossing the Shenandoah river and coming up
to Jackson's forces, we skirmished until dark, and
then recrossed the river and bivouacked for the night
20 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT .
to await assistance next morning. General McDowell
not having come up with his army our brigade, con-
sisting of one battalion of Bucktails, Hall's Second
Maine Battery, of three guns, the First N^ew Jersey
Cavalry, and First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry,
proceeded alone, and driving Jackson's rear guard
out of Strasburg, were almost immediately joined by
the advance of General Fremont's army, entering
from another direction.
A gallop of six miles, brought us upon the enemy's
batteries at Woodstock, and after three repeated
attacks, we drove them from their position, and his
rear guard, consisting of infantr}^ and cavalry'-, from
In this manner, we proceeded for eight days under
the guns of the enemy every day, and driving him as
rapidly as General Fremont could follow with our
At Mount Jackson, on the 4th, a running fight for
the bridge across the Shenandoah, occurred, but the
enemy reaching the river first, succeeded in crossing
his forces, and destroying the bridge, thus delaying
our column until the next day.
On the afternonn of the 6th, a sharp action oc-
curred, just beyond Harrisonburg, in which the First
New Jersey Cavalry, first, and later the Bucktail
Battalion and our own regiment engaged a force of
the enemy at least three times their number, and
completely repulsed them.
On the 8th, we advanced and participated in the
Battle of Cross Keys, but being the reserve, were but
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY 21
Next day we led the advance ^of the centre column
to Port Republic, vrhere we arrived just in time to
witness the bridge, across the Shenandoah in flames
and the enemy all safely beyond our reach.
On the 10th, we commenced retracing our steps
down the valley, and, after a halt of two days at
Mount Jackson, returned via of Front Royal again
to Manassas, which point we reached on the 23rd,
making thirty days of incessant marching, skirmish-
ing and fighting, having in that time, marched nearly
four hundred miles, skirmishing the greater part of
the way in the face of the enemy, and having been
engaged in two battles, and ten or twelve consider-
Remaining at Manassas to refit, as the effiqiency
of the command was much reduced by its late severe
service, the regiment was engaged for the next two
weeks in picketing in the direction of the Rappa-
pope's advance to the rapidann and retreat to
. We next marched with the advance of Pope's army,
first to Manassas Junction, on the 4th of Jul}'^, and
some two weeks afterward to Rappahannock river
From this latter point, as, a centre, we made various
marches, during the remainder of the month to Mad-
ison Court House, towards Gordonsville, &c. ; also
doing heavy picket duty at the same time.
On the 1st of August, we advanced vfith the brigade
22 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
to tlie Eapidann river, where picket and scout followed
each other in regular reliefs, and our horses were sel-
dom unsaddled day or night, from that time until, as
rear guard, we came to Alexandria, closely followed
by the enemy's advance, to within a few miles of that
city ; a period of about five weeks, day and night on
" The duty on the Rapidann was very heavy. Our
little party, about twelve miles from the advance of
the army, for eight days guarding all the crossings of
the river for several miles at a low stage of water,
and at the same time watching at all points inland for
the enemy's approach from above and below ; making
constant scouts to watch the country around us, was
severely tried and all its endurance tested to the
When Jackson finally advanced in force, his first
attempt on crossing the river, was to take our whole
party before we could reach assistance, as he was fully
aware of our location and force.
On the night of August tth, 1862, the enemy
crossed at several places and made attempts in the
darkness, to surprise and capture our pickets, but was
so skilfully baffled in his undertaking as to succeed
in capturing but two men. The outpost rallying upon
the reserve, held the enemy in check till morning,
when the regiment withdrew some three miles and
another stand was made to cover the crossing of the
brigade over the Robinson river. Here the enemy
were again delayed by a skilful management of our
forces, until our camps were cleared, and our wagon
train removed a safe distance to the rear, when we
PENNSYLVANIA RESEKVE CAVALRY. 23
slowly retired, although subject to a brisk fire of
artillery, and pursued by a strong force of infantry
and cavalry, supported, as we afterward learned, by
Jackson's whole force.
General Bayard, by his skilful manoeuvering, and by
the good conduct of our men, baffled the enemy's ad-
vance in force so completely, that nearly the whole
day was occupied in returning to Cedar Mountain, a
distance of but seven or eight miles from the point of
attack on the previous evening.
Here, as a prelude to the bloody battle of the next
day, we formed, and by holding the position until
General Banks' force arrived, and deployed in battle
order, traced the memorable lines, and measured off
the groimd, where before another day was half spent,
more than twenty thousand men met face to face in
mortal combat. A cool and determined front was
kept continually toward the enemy, and as squadron
after squadron filed off to the rear, the next in succes-
sion opened its front to the attack, until the preceding
one had again taken up position, thus slowly and
stubbornly giving ground, inch by inch, as the weight
of the enemy's overwhelming force pushed us back.
'Tor this masterly retreat. General Bayard and
his command received public compliment and thanks
from the commanding General on the field next day.'^
BATTLE OF CEDAR MOUNTAIN.
The regiment was in front of the battle next day
at Cedar Mountain as advance skirmishers, and the
first battalion after skirmishing, was placed as sup-
port of Knapp's battery, which was making sad havoc
24 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
with the enemy. A charge of a fall division upon
this battery placed it in imminent peril. A charge of
cavalry was ordered. The first battalion dashed
upon the enemy, broke three successive lines of in-
fantry, turned and fought back ; and of one hundred
and sixteen men who started, about seventy-five
formed their line again by the side of the battery.
The advance of the enemy was completely checked by
this daring charge, and the battery saved.
See subjoined extract of official report of Major
R. J. Falls, First Penna. Bes. Cavalry.
.'' In the Field, August 13tli, 1862.
" Sir : According to your instructions, I beg leave
to offer the following report of a charge, made by
the first battalion of your regiment, under my imme-
diate command, at the battle of Cedar Mountain, on
the 9th instant, at about 5 o'clock P. M.
''I was directed by Brigadier- General Bayard to
charge through the enemy's lines, at a point where
they were supposed to be forming for a charge on our
'' My command consisting of Companies A, B, C,
and D, Companies A and B forming the first squad-
ron, commanded by Captain Wm. Litzenberg of B
company ; and companies C and D, composing the
second squadron, commanded by Captain J. P.
Taylor of C company. Company A of the first
squadron, being commanded for the time being by
First liieutenant Wm. T. McEwen of C company, and
Lieutenant Kelly. Captain T. J. Frow -being absent
sick, and First Lieutenant Wm. IL Patterson having
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 25
been detached as Aid to General Bayard, during the
early part of the engagement. Company B was com-
manded by Second Lieutenant R. S. Lawsha, Captain
Litzenberg being in command of the squadron, and
First Lieutenant Wm. Buzby absent sick. Company
C, of the second squadron, was commanded by Sec-
ond Lieutenant R. J. McNitt, Captain Taylor being
in command of a squadron, and Lieutenant Wm.
McEwen detached in command of company A.
Company D was commanded by Captain H. A.
McDonald, First Lieutenant W. L. Holbrook and
Second Lieutenant Wm. F. Butcher, until the former
was severely wounded and the latter killed, when the
command devolved entirely on Lieutenant Holbrook.
''After getting in front of the point designated,
and being in column of fours, I immediately formed
squadron, my command being already under fire.
'' I moved forward at a rapid gait until within fifty
yards of the enemy's lines, which I fo.und in great
force, and three in number, when I gave the command
'' charge, '^ when, with loud and terrific cheering, my
command charged through their lines, cutting, run-
ning down and scattering them in every direction,
causing sad havoc and discomfiture in their ranks, as
prisoners taken testify.
" After charging back and reforming I found my
command reduced from one hundred and sixty-four,
rank and file, to that of seventy-one, the remainder
having been killed, w^ounded, or otherwise placed
ho7-s du combat, by their horses falling over those
killed and wounded.
26 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
" Our little band there proving themselves true sons
of the old Keystone state.''
The third battalion, commanded by Lieu.tenant-
Colonel S. D. Barrows, after the battle had fairl}^
opened, was withdrawn from the skirmish line, and
stationed immediately in rear of the centre, w^here it
remained until ordered to withdraw at dark.
The second battalion occupied a position on the
extreme right of our line of battle, as flankers and at
one stage of the action was entirely cut off by a force
of the enemy, but succeeded in eluding the trap pre-
pared for it by remaining in its position until dark,
and then coming in, under cover of the night.
Additional Particulars. — The fatigue of the pre-
vious twenty-four hours' unremitting and exhausting
service, with the heat of an August sun and the
clouds of dust the arid w^inds stirred from the parched
earth, had well nigh overcome the men, so that when,
as the sun's last rays vanished from the west, the
enemy withdrew his pressing columns, they sank
down at their horses feet, rein in hand, and were soon
lost to surrounding dangers and the demands of sup-
perless stomachs, in the unconscious embrace of that
sweet restorer exhausted nature so much needed.
But the fleet hours of the brief night passed before
the tired soldier had half finished his grateful repose.
Morning dawned calm and beautiful, and opening
day, as its approach was heralded by the golden
streams that flooded the eastern horizon, appeared, as
though conscious of the awful scene about to be en-
acted, to draw the rising mists as a veil of sorrow
around its opening splendors, and shed a sombre hue
over the face of nature.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY- 2t
The first streaks of morning light was the' signal
for the soldier to shake off his slnmbers, and prepare
for the coming conflict. A cracker, with a cup of
coffee hastily prepared from the muddy water of a
brook hard b}^, made our breakfast, and we were ready.
During the night the infantry and artillery had taken
their respective positions, and the cavalry, stretching
along from right to left, a few hundred yards to the
front, forming the advance skirmish line.
And thus we stood from early morning, hour after
hour, in painful suspense, awaiting the opening gun,
Eleven o'clock came, and still all was quiet, and the
first keen anxiety having worn off, expressions of im-
patience could be heard passing along the ranks, as
fretted by the weMying suspense, the feeling naturally
arises in the human breast to dare the worst, rather
than wear longer the galling chain.
But the scene was soon to be varied, A few
moments after eleven. Generals Crawford, Banks and
Bayard with their staffs, riding forward to recon-
noitre, were opened upon by a battery, and our
gunners immediately replied, and a sharp artillery
duel ensued, which was continued with great vigor
for nearly an hour, on both sides, but no infantry
At 12 M., the firing had ceased and silence again
reigned until half past three, when a lone gun from a
battery of the enemy, on' the point of Cedar Moun-
tain again sounded forth the signal.
Another and another immediately answered it along
the line, until, in a few minutes, the woods rang and
the hills echoed with the storm of thunder that burst
28 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
from a dozen batteries ; soon the infantry, too, opened,
and by four o'clock the battle raged with fury. A
fiercer or more deadly contest, between the same
number, is seldom directed by the god of war. A
little more than seven thousand' Union troops fought,
and gallantly held in check, from three and a half P.
M. until darkness ended the carnage, more than eight
From four o'clock until seven, the battle raged with
unabated fierceness, peal on peal rung out the can-
non's thunder, growing louder and. more intense every
moment, while crash answered crash in the long un-
broken roll of musketry, and never did her sons bear
more nobly the starry emblem of onr nation's glory,
than during these wearisome and ^ful hours on the
bloody plains around Cedar Mountain.
'' After the battle of Cedar Mountain, our regiment
was accorded the post of honor in the extreme ad-
vance, and remained there, when our men were
actually shot in camp by the enemy's pickets, for
about a week.'^
When Pope retired, on the 19th of August, General
Bayard's command, increased to five ' regiments,
formed the rear* guard. Moving slowly back we
passed. through Culpepper at ten o'clock at night, and
reaching Brandy station at midnight, rested until
morning. At daylight our outposts were attacked by
the enemy. Supporting them strongly and gradually
falling back, we kept him at a respectful distance
until w^e neared the Rappahannock, when gathering
his forces for a final attack, with the view of turning
our flank, and cutting us off from the river, he made a
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 29
dashing charge, first on the second New York cavalry,
which, struck while forming, was broken, and next on
the first JSTew Jersey cavalry which shared the same
fate, by the second l^^ffw York, which was in their im-
mediate front, riding through and confusing its ranks.
This occurred in a strip of woods that skirted an
open, cleared country, which extended in a semicircle
of half a mile from the ford, and the First Pennsyl-
vania Reserve Cavalry, which had passed on, and
just emerged from the woods as the attack was made?
drew up in line, one half in the open field, facing the
woods and the other on one side, partially concealed
On came the Johnnies^fter breaking the line in the
woods, yelling and whooping, and doubtlessly sup-
posing they would have it all their own way, but they
were shortly led to think otherwise. As soon as they
had emerged from the woods, the First Pennsylvania
moved on them from the front and at the same time
swept around an unlooked-for column on the flank.
This brought them very quickly to a stand and about
the time they were preparing to take the back track,
the two regiments in the woods which had in the
mean time rallied, came thundering down on their
rear, completing their route, and scattering them in
every direction. Remaining in battle line for some
time and no enemy making his appearance, we crossed
On the 21st, we again joined Generals McDowell and
SiegePs forces, and did picket duty, and participated
in the skirmishes along the Rappahannock, from
Rappahannock Station to Sulphur Springs, until we
30 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
retired with General Siegel to Gainesville on the
evening of the 27th, having been on constant duty
and under fire every day.
Immediately on crossing ihe river, Company E,
Captain M. L. French ; Company F, Captain A.
Davidson ; Company G, Captain D. Gardner, and
Company H, Captain Theodore Streck, the whole
under charge of Major' J. H. Ray were detached from
the regiment and sent to Beverly Ford, on picket.
The next day, the 22nd, having been relieved by a
body of infantry and a battery of artillery, the bat-
talion retired a short distance from the river to rest
and graze their horses, * and just when some of the
men had unsaddled and were grooming their horses,
others absent hunting forage, and the detachment
scattered generally, the enemy opened a battery of
six guns on the point and at the same time charged
across the river with a body of cavalry. But, although
taken at this great disadvantage, those who were pre-
sent immediately rallied, forming line and holding
the enemy back, until the balance of the command
had all got together, when it withdrew without the
loss of a man or horse.
From this place the battalion was ordered on
special duty at General Pope's headquarters and con-
tinued thus employed until after the battle of Bull
Run, when it returned to the regiment.
On the 22nd day of August, also, a party of
about a dozen men, in charge of Sergeant H. A.
Wood, Regimental C. S. Sergeant, on their way from
Catlett's Station to the regiment with rations, were
waylaid and fired on by a squad of rebel infantry
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 31
near Sulphur Springs, and at the same time closed in
on from the rear by a squadron of cavalry and com-
pelled to surrender. During the following night,
however. Sergeant Wood succeeded in making his
escape and joined the regiment next morning.
About the same time also, Jackson reached the rear
of our army at Manasses Junction, cut off our supplies
and the regiment was forced to subsist for the next
ten days, on the scanty fare this desolate and wasted
region afforded, which consisted principally of green
corn, savored by an occasional emaciated sheep or
pig. All who experienced the hardships of these, the
most trying days the regiment had yet passed through,
will remember the sleepless nights, after days of ex-
hausting toil, and the commencement of another day's
duty, without the preface of a breakfast or the pros-
pect of a dinner, and as for our horses with their
backs actually putrid from the constant pressure and
wear of the saddles, which had not been permitted to
be removed for weeks, fell down in the ranks from
exhaustion and starvation, and were abandoned by the
wayside. '' This was headquarters in the saddle."
The night following the day that Jackson made his
attack on Manasses, a portion of Stuart's cavalry,
made a descent on Catlett's Station, where, with*
others, our division and regimental trains were parked,
but by the energy and gallantry of Captain R. R.
Corson, Division Quartermaster and Lieutenant
George H. Baker, Regimental Quartermaster, who
had collected the dismounted men and teamsters and
barricaded the camp and prepared to resist an attack,
and with the aid of Colonel Kane and a small party
32 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
of Bucktails, who were encamped close by, succeeded
in driving the raiders off before they accomplished
any damage further than the destruction of half dozen
of General Pope's headquarter teams.
BATTLE OF BULL RtlN.
During the 28th day of August, we were acting as
flankers and skirmishers to McDowell's army and re-
ceived the enemy's first fire, near Gainesville. The
next day attached to General Reynold's Division, we
spent the whole day on the extreme left of the army,
being under fire most of the time and occupied the
same comparative position next day, till called on to
form part of the column of cavalry, preparing for
a grand charge. When the left wing of the army
was forced back, we, with the other cavalry were de-
tailed to arrest the stainpede and were engaged in
this until night-fall covered the bloody scenes of that
With picket and skirmish daily, we, as part of the
rear guard, closed up the remainder of that memor-
able retreat, and then with little more than one
hundred horses and two hundred available men,
commenced a new picket line outside of Washington.
EXTRACT FROM AN ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE.
'' The First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry claims
the honor of drawing the first fire and of receiving the
last, in the ever-memorable battle of the Second Bull
Run. On the morning of the 28th day of August,
1862, one squadron,- Companies I and M got between
Jackson and Longstreet on the Thoroughfare Gap
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 33
pike, and captured and brought out ninety-seven pris-
oners. The next morning Colonel Owen Jones made
a reconnoissance toward Centreville, and was opened
npon by a light battery of the enemy, this being the
first shot fired on either side.
On the evening, of the 30th, Sergeant (now First
Lieutenant) F. S. Morgan with ten men held a road
leading to Centreville until all the wounded were re-
moved from the buildings in his rear. The rebels
brought up a battery of four guns and attempted tp
drive the little squad, but without avail, until their
task was completely accomplished,^ and this was the
last fire of the engagement. '^
CAMP SOUTH OF WASHINGTON.
Establishing camp, September 1st, near Munson^s
Hill, on the outskirts of the defences of Washington,
picketing the approaches of the city, where we re-
mained some six weeks refitting for the field.
About the middle of September, five companies, G,
H, I, K and L, under command of Major R. J. Falls,
were sent to do duty with General Siegel at Centre-
ville, and were employed in picketing the line of Bull
Run and scouting the plains of Manassas.
On the 12th of October, a scout was made to War-
renton consisting of this detachment from our regi-
ment, and one of about the same strength from the
First New Jersey Cavalry, , all under command of
Lieutenant- Colonel Karze, (First New Jersey), which
after a brief skirmish drove a body of the enemy's
cavalry from the place, entered the town and captured
and paroled *up wards of fourteen hundred sick and
84 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
wounded soldiers, who had been brought here by the
enemy, from the battle-field of Bull Run.
On the 10th of October, the balance of the regi-
ment in camp, led the advance and covered the re-
turn of the division in a four days' scout from Bailey's
Cross Koads to the Rappahannocfe.
SECOND ADVANCE FROM THE POTOMAC OF 1862.
On the morning of the 2Hh day of October, in the
face of the pelting torrents of rain and sweeping
gusts of a fierce equinoctial, we again took up our
line of march southward.
Our column consisted of some dozen regiments of
cavalry, with the necessary train and transportation,
and we consequently moved very slowly. More than
half the day was spent before we were fairly on the
road, and night came on before we had gotten a dozen
miles from capap.
The next day we marched to the plains of Chantilly
and establishing that place as a centre, immediately
engaged in scouting the country beyond, as far as the
Bull Run mountains on the west, and the Rappahan-
nock on the south.
On the thirty-first with a force consisting of the
First New Jersey, our own regiment and four pieces
of artillery, we were attacked by an equal force of
the enemy, at the village of Aldie, situated on the
Middleburg and Upperville pike, and in a Gap of the
Bull Run mountains. After a spirited action of some
two hours, the enemy were repulsed and we remained
master of the field.
On the 4th of November, we marched* to join forces
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 85
with General McClellan's advance, which was moving
southward from the Potomac, along the east side of
the Blue Ridge. Halted for the night a short dis-
tance beyond Middleburg, and resuming march next
morning, reached Upperville late in the afternoon ;
and, a few hours aft^r. General Pleasanton had driven
the enemy from the place.
Early on the morning of the 6ih, we resumed the
march, and after travelling a circuitous route of
twenty miles, reached the Walerloo pike, some three
miles southwest of Warrenton. Here we met the
enemy, who immediately opened a battery on the
head of our column. .#
Captain H. S. Thomas' squadron, companies L
and M, was at oiice ordered forward as skirmishers,
supported by companies I and K. Captain H.
Gardner, with company G, was sent down the pike
toward Waterloo, while Colonel Owen Jones, wdth
the balance of the regiment, pushed across the coun-
try with the desf^ of intercepting the enemy on the
Sulphur Spring pilfe ■ -But only waiting to give us a
few shell, he limbered up before our guns could be
gotten in position, and made off with such sjDeed as to
baffle all attempts to overtake him. Our artillery,
however, paid its compliments to the support of his
battery, (which consisted of about a regiment of cav-'
airy,) in the shape of a shower of shot and shell, as
they dashed over the hill in their endeavors to elude
After the pursuit was discontinued, and the dif-
ferent detachments had rejoined the command, we
resumed the march, passing through Warrenton and
36 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
halting for the night a few miles out on the Fayette-
Next morning, the Yth, we started in a heavy snow
storm for Fayetteville, and reaching it about noon,
remained there until nearly dark, when we again
moved forward in the direction of Rappahannock
station. Arriving in the vicinity of the bridge, at
nine P. M., Colonel 3"ones was ordered to charge the
fording with the First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry,
and save the bridge, if possible ; which movement he
accomplished with such skill and dash, as to com-
pletely surprise the enemy and drive him oif before
he could reach the bridge, or do any injury to it.
On the following morning we went into camp near
the station and remained for twelve days, picketing
the various fords above and below this point.
On the night of the 19th we were again in column
of route, slowly plodding our way through mud and
rain and intense darkness, toward F^almouth. After
eight hours wearisome travel we reached Morrisville,
seven miles distant, and halted until morning. Again
on the road, we reached Hartwood church, drenched
with rain and covered with mud ;• and the next day,
after a wearisome march, made through mud knee-
deep to our horses, we made Brook's station, and
Picketing and scouting in the direction of the Oc-
coquan river and Dum'fries, made up the duties of the
regiment for the four weeks we remained here,
BATTLE OF FREDERICKSBURO.
At early dawn, on the morning of the 10th of De-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. SI
cember, we received orders to break camp and be
ready to move at once ; this was not done without
some regret, as the men had already prepared neat
and comfortable winter quarters.
The line of march was commenced an hour or two
before night, in the direction of Falmouth. The
roads being completely covered with ice, and darkness
setting in it became very difficult to advance over the
•hilly and uneven road, and we soon halted for the
night. In the saddles again at six the next morning
and reached Falmouth about noon. Forming a mile
to the rear of the town, we remained in that position
until evening, when, retiring to a wood just in our
rear, picketed our horses, and building huge fires,
were soon bivouacked for the night, all except com-
panies I and K, Captains J. M. Gaston and J. H.
Williams, which were sent to the river at dark to
cross on the lowe/ pontoon, and picket on the other
side between the enemy's outposts and the pontoon
The night was intensely cold, and little sleep was
had by the regiment, but the morning dawned clear
and beautiful on the heights, where, soon after day-
light, we stood formed ready for the advance ; though
the river and the lowlands, which, at this -place, skirt
its banks on the north side for half a mile, and on the
south for full a mile back from the water's edge, were
shrouded in thick clouds of mist.
The regiment, with the brigade, reached the river
bank about nine A. M., and in half an hour had
passed over the pontoons and taken position on the
hostile shore. Here we were joined by the squadron
38 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
sent forward the night previous to picket, and the
regiment having been detailed as advance skirmishers,
with orders to proceed until we found the enemy, our
line was at once formed, stretching for a mile across
the plains, and the advance commenced.
We found the enemy about a mile from the river,
just beyond the railroad, in force, and reported his
General Bayard having visited the front, ordered
the regiment to fall back across the railroad ; this
movement was instantly followed by the enemy's
skirmishers, and his battle line moving forward at
the same time opened hotly upon us. Our carbineers
replied coolly and rapidly, holding the position for
fully an hour against these odds, and until the in-
fantry skirmishers of the Pennsylvania Reserve
Corps relieved us.
The next day we were again deployed as skir-
mishers, our line stretching across the field the entire
breadth of our left wing, and through the dreadful
length of that disastrous day, we were compelled to
sit, a target for the enemy's artiller}", (which poured
from the adjacent heights a continuous stream of iron
death on the plain below,) living an age in an hour,
and every 'moment dragged out to an agonizing
length by the oppressive suspense, produced by the
grand and appalling surroundings, still the regiment
remained where it had been placed, not a man swerv-
ing from his post, until the shades of night began to
settle down upon that plain, now smoking -with the
warm life's blood of fifteen thousand Union soldiers,
when we were relieved and withdrawn to the river
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 39
DEATH OF GENERAL BAYARD.
About three o'clock in the afternoon of the 1 3th,
when the storm of battle raged the fiercest, and flying
shot and shell were crashing through our ranks and
ploughing up the earth around us, the sad tidings of
the fall of our beloved general reached us. It fell
like a thunderbolt upon the regiment ; men forgot
themselves in danger in their anxious solicitude for
their general, and plainly, for a while, could be dis-
cerned along that unwavering line of brave men, the
stern and rigid lineaments battle stamps upon the
features, softening into gentler lines beneath the
melting influence of sympathy and sorrow, and then
again growing doubly frigid and unrelenting, as
revenge brought back to mind who dealt the mur-
No one, among the many heroes who have fallen
in this war, possessed more fully* and unfeignedly the
love and esteem of those whom he honored as their
leader, than did General Bayard of his command,
and especially of his own regiment the First Penn-
sylvania Reserve Cavalry.
To this brilliant and lamentable soldier and unsur-
passed cavalry officer, the regiment owes the com-
pleteness of its organization, the rapidity of its
training, the skill and steadiness of movement which
have rendered it so successful in its manoeuvers and
evolutions in the face of the enemy, the careful
training in picket duty, which have spared it the
mortification of surprise, and enables it thus far, to
exhibit a record in this respect few regiments can
40 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
equal, and to his training and example the steadiness
and quiet courage which rendered its actions so con-
spicuous on this bloody field, and drew from General
Reynolds the highest encomiums as it stood unwa-
vering under the whole weight of fire from Jackson's
line, holding its position until relieved.
It is not unworthy of note here, that the First
Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry was the only cavalry
regiment actively engaged in this ill-advised and
sanguinary battle, the balance of the brigade, w^hich
crossed the river with us, having been massed under
cover of the river bank, where it remained during the
EXTRACT OF REPORT OF COLONEL OWEN JONES, CONTAIN-
ING ADDITIONAL PARTICULARS OF OPERATIONS OF THE
REGIMENT, FROM OCTOBER 21tII TO DECEMBER 14tH,
''As Colonel of Ihe First Pennsylvania Reserve
Cavalry, I have the honor to report to you the service
performed b}^ this regiment since the commencement
of this present campaign :
'' On the 2tth of October, I left Rally's cross roads,
and marched to Chantilly, and a few days after was
ordered with Bayard's brigade to report to General
'' On the 31st had a small skirmish with a cavalry
force of the enemj^, supported by a battery, at Aldie.
'' On the Gth of November, companies L and M,
Captains H. S. Thomas and Lieutenant H. S. Gaul
being in advance, the brigade moving on Warrenton,
were attacked by the Seventh Virginia Cavalry, with
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 41
an artillery support. The engagement was short and
decisive. The enemy were soon driven from their
positions with loss of killed and captured.
^'Immediately after I entered Warrenton with a
portion of my regiment, and was shortly after joined
by the other regiments connected with the Pennsyl-
vania Reserves, and the remainder of General
Bayard's brigade, in the afternoon of that day.
During a violent snowstorm, I was ordered forward
with two battalions of the regiment, and a section of
artillery, to seize and save the bridge, at Rappahan-
nock station. My cavalry cut off and captured the
picket stationed at the north side of the river for the
protection of the bridge. A regiment of infantry
encamped on the opposite side, was shelled and
driven from their camp, leaving behind them their
tents and material, including the luggage and mess
chests of the officers, which were subsequently taken
possession of by my men. Thus successfully carry-
ing out the objects of the expedition. I held the
bridge for about forty-eight hours until relieved by a
brigade of infantry.
''From that time until the 19th, the regiment was
engaged in guarding the various fords above and
below the bridge, during which time various detach-
ments had several slight skirmishes with the enemy.
On the evening of the 19th, the regiment moved for
Brooks Station, where it arrived on the 22nd, and
there remained until the 10th day of December,
doing picket and scouting duty.
" Arrived opposite Fredericksburg on the 11th of
December, early on the morning of the 12th, the regi-
42 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ment was ordered to take the advance of the brigade,
crossed the Rappahannock where we were joined by
two companies that had passed the river the evening
previous to do picket duty.
'' By order of General Bayard, the regiment was then
deployed as skirmishers in front of the brigade, and
advanced cautiously through a thick fog, meeting and
driving before them the advance post of the enemy,
and holding their position until relieved by the ad-
vance of the infantry. In doing this duty a very
severe skirmish occurred, in which a number of men
and horses were killed and wounded.
'' The companies deployed as skimishers, were under
the command of Captain William T. McEwen, M. L.
French, H. C. Beamer, H. S. Thomas and Lieutenant
H. S. Gaul.
'' I cannot speak in too high terms of the officers and
men engaged in this affair. All did their duty nobly.
This regiment was the only one actually engaged in
the fight of that day and bivouacked for the night on
" The day following I was ordered with my regiment
to report to General Reynolds, for daty, and by him
was directed to watch the motions of the enemy on
the left of the army during the entire day, exposed
to a storm of shot and shell, seldom, if ever equalled.
That duty was performed, and I have reason to be-
lieve, to the full and entire satisfaction of the officers
in command, no other cavalry being in that portion
of the field.
'' The men remained during the night in the position
held by them during the battle : our loss having been
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 43
heavy in horses, although, fortunately few of the men
^' The day folio whig we were ordered to recross the
river and picket the north bank of the Rappahannock
for a distance of some ten miles below Fredericks-
burg, which duty is now being performed.
" It gives me great pleasure to be able to say that
during the entire time, none of my men have been
W^INTER QUARTERS AT BELL PLAIN LANDING, VA.
The regiment continued thus employed until the
29th of December, when it moved to within a short
distance of Bell Plain Landing, on the Potomac side
of the neck and prepared winter quarters.
The industry and constructive genius of our men
soon changed the appearance of a wooded hillside,
the site for our camp, from a primeval forest, to a
neat and comfortable village of seven or eight hun-
dred soldiers. The place of tents was supplied by
huts half dug in the hillside, with natural chimneys
drilled through the bank on the upper side, and the
portion of the hut above ground, finished by logs and
clap boards made from lumber felled at the door.
These quarters were all the men wished, had they
been permitted to enjoy them, but ''the exigencies of
the service " directed otherwise, and in little more
than a month the regiment was moved to other ground
about a mile distant, and its skill again tested, in
constructing quarters. Here, fortunately, it was per-
mitted to have a •nominal home until we broke camp
in April, but not to enjoy uninterruptedly its log-
44 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
ribbed and mud-plastered palaces, as each alternate
ten days durins: the whole winter was spent on
picket along the Rappahannock, .in the vicinity of
King George Court House.
INCIDENTS OE THE WINTER.
On the 19th day of January, the regiment with the
army, turned out to make another attempt at dis-
lodging the enemy from his formidable position
around Fredericksburg, by crossing the river at
''United States Ford," some miles above that place,
and assailing his flank. But a heavy rain storm set-
ting in, the roads became impassable, the artillery
and trains swamping in the mud, a few miles from
their camps, and after three days splashing and floun-
dering, the movement was abandoned and the troops
drenched, bespattered and half frozen returned to
Shortly after this move. Colonel Owen Jones re-
signing. Lieutenant- Colonel J. P. Taylor was chosen
Colonel of the regiment, and on the 10th of February
following. Major D. Gardner, Lieutenant- Colonel.
While on picket at King George C. H., on the l^th
of March a detachment consisting of Companies F,
G, L and M, under command of Major McEwen,
made a scout on the neck below, destroying a number
of barges and boats employed in smuggling contra-
band goods across the -Rappahannock.
Two nights after, another detachment, consisting
of Companies I and K, under command of Major
Gaston, was sent to West Mordant C. H. on a sim-
ilar expedition. On arriving at Maddox creek, some
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 45
ten miles below, the party was divided : Captain
Williams with K company taking the road to Maddox
creek landing, while Captain T. C. McGregor, with I
company proceeded on toward the Court House, and
returning by way of Leedstown, destroying a large
boat and captured a smuggler's wagon, loaded with
silks, shoes, fancy goods and imperial tea. All that
could be carried was packed on the saddles, and the
balance, with the wagon, was destroyed, and the
party returned next day to headquarters, having
more the appearance of a travellers' caravan, than a
squadron of Yankee cavalry.
OPENING or THE SPRING CAMPAIGN OP 1863.
At 9 A. M., April 12th, 1863, thfe ''general,"
whose notes had not greeted our ears for several
months, was again sounded. Tents struck and sad-
dles packed, the regiment was soon on its way from
Bell Plain landing, Ya., toward the Rappahannock to
do picket duty. Established picket headquarters
near King George C. II. and picket the river from
Falmouth to Port Conway. Continued at this duty
until May the 9th, when it was relieved and marched
to Potomac Creek bridge.
At Port Conway, the terminus of our line of picket
along the river, a flanking chain of videttes extended
across the country at right angles with the river, for
some three miles ; all below this was open and un-
guarded and occasional scouts were made in this
region, to learn what was transpiring, waylay smug-
glers and destroy contraband goods. On Sunday,
the 26th day of April, a scouting party started,
46 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
under command of Lieutenant- Colonel Gardner, to
go to Leedstown, on the JS'orthern Neck, of Ya. for
the purpose of capturing some rebel soldiers, reported
to be across the river visiting friends. The main
body of the party left the lower picket lines about 4,
A. M., and proceeded down on the Rappahannock
road until they reached Leedstown
At 12.30 M. of the same day, Colonel Taylor, ac-
companied by an escort of one officer, (Lieutenant
"W. A. Kennedy, Company K,) and six men, pro-
ceeded in the direction the detachment had taken, for
the purpose of intercepting it. When about eight
miles below our line, they were fired upon by a large
body of the Fifteenth Virginia (rebel) cavalry, dis-
mounted and in ambush. Three of the number, Eli
Leskelett, Moses Hastings, and Corporal David
Ackelson, all from Company I, were riddled with
bullets and fell from their horses dead, or mortally
wounded. Colonel Taylor had his cap shot from his
head and Lieutenant Kennedy his horse wounded,
and both narrowly escaped being captured, by dash-
ing through the guerrillas who thronged the road in
front of them.
This cowardly crew was part of a detachment of
about three hundred who had crossed the river in
two large flat boats, after Colonel Gardner's party
had passed down, with the intention of intercepting
their return. Destroying the bridges and posting
parties in ambush on the different roads, they would
doubtlessly have succeeded in their dastardly designs
of murderinof more of our men, but for the alarm
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 41
occasioned by the attack made on Colonel Taylor
and his party, which was communicated to Colonel
Gardner, by negroes who had witnessed the affair,
thereby enabling him by skilful movements to evade
the traps arranged for him, and bring his whole party
safely into camp, having succeeded in capturing a
dozen of prisoners and destroying several boats and
a considerable amount of contraband property, du-
ring their absence.
The line of the river we were engaged in picketing
during this time, embraced an extent of twenty-five
miles, making the duty of the regiment, which num-
bered scarcely- three hundred men for duty, very
severe. But we lived in a ''land flowing with milk
and honey," and good cheer, in part, made up for
hard work. This beautiful and fertile country, being
plentifully supplied with poultry, milk and eggs,
which were readily obtained in exchange for sugar,
coffee and salt ; and not unfrequently, as is the habit
of soldiers", in sections not eminent for their loyalty,
with exchange all on one side. And as the spring
advanced the river swarmed with shad, herring and
other choice fish, of which the Yankees soon invented
means of catching more than they could use, so that
when at length the order came for our exodus, we
might have felt even loath to leave these fair mead-
ows, had not the cannon^s roar wafted to our ears
from Marye's heights, the Wilderness and Chancel-
lorsville, reminded us that the contest for another
year had opened and we must prepare to bearour part.
At dark, on the evening of the 8th day of May,
we commenced withdrawing our pickets and bidding
adieu, alike to good living and the fair damsels of
48 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
secessia who graced these regions with their charms,
though regretting most to leave the former, as sol-
diers very readily learned to discriminate between
the real and the visionary. We stored our haver-
sacks with hard tack and salt junct, and about IIP.
M. were on the road to Falmouth.
Marching all night, at sunrise we found ourselves
winding along over hill and hollow, through old
camps and brush strewed clearings, toward Potomac
May the 18th, marched to U. S. Ford, and picketed
along the river until the 28th, then moved to War-
renton Junction, and established camp. Here we
were again engaged in picketing, but the duty was
slight, and the regiment, during the eleven days of it
uninterrupted stay here, was principally engaged in
refitting, recruiting its horses, and preparing for
active operations, which were soon to follow.
June the 8th, marched toward the river and en-
camped within a mile of Kelley's ford. June the
9th we crossed the river early in the morning and
participated in the Battle of Brandy Station. See
annexed official report of Colonel John P. Taylor.
"Head Quarters 1st Penna. Ees. Cavalry, Warrenton Junction.
June 12, 1S63.
" Lieut. Wm. P. Lloyd,
A. a: Adjt. Gen. 2nd Brig. Sd Div. C. C.
Lieutenant :—'' I have the honor to respectfully
submit, in brief review, the part my regiment took in
the late cavalry fight at Brandy Station, Ya., June
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 49
On Monday, the 8th, the Cavalry Corps, commanded
by General Pleasanton, according to orders, left this
place at 2, P. M. ; the first and fourth divisions com-
manded by General Buford, taking up a line of march
leading to Beverly ford.
''The second and third divisions commanded by
General Gregg, proceeded to Kelley's ford; both
commands arrived at the different fords about dark,
and bivouacked for the night.
" Before sunrise the follovfing morning, the roar of
cannon told us that the " ball had opened'^ at Beverly
ford. General Gregg's command immediately pro-
ceeded to cross the river. Colonel Dufie, com-
manding the second division, taking the advance,
followed by the third division, and thus proceeding
to Stevensburg, about four miles from Kelley's ford.
At this point. General Gregg, leaving Colonel Dufie
with his command to protect his left flank and rear,
proceeded with the third division on a road running
parallel with the river, leading direct to Brandy Sta-
tion. The Second Brigade, composed of the First
Pennsylvania, First New Jersey, and First Marj-land
regiments, commanded by Colonel Wyndham, took
the ad\Ance, followed by the First Brigade, com-
manded by Colonel Kilpatrick.
" 1^0 sooner had we arrived at Brandy Station, on
the left and rear of the enem}^, than their guns were
opened upon us, at a range 'of one thousand yards.
Our battery was immediately placed in position and
engaged their guns, while Colonel Wyndham hastened
to attack with his cavalry. One battalion of the
First Maryland, led by Major Kussel, charged upon
50 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
their battery, followed by the remainder of the First
Maryland, led by Lieutenant- Colonel Deemes, and
the First [N'ew Jersey led by Colonel Wyndham in
person. At the same time swinging my regiment
around to the right,
^' I led a desperate charge upon their left and rear,
coming up to the Barbour House, in which was General
Stuart, staff and body guard, surrounded by cavalry,
with whom we spent thirty minutes in hand to hand
conflict, killing and wounding and bringing away
with us a number of prisoners, among whom was
General Stuart's assistant adjutant-general, captured
but a few feet from the renowaied General Stuart
himself. In this entire charge and conflict my men
depended alone upon the cavalryman's true weapon,
and tested the true merit and power of the sabre.
^' At this stage of the fight, the enemy being heavily
reinforced, we w^ere compelled to give way, disputing
every step to our new line of battle, where Colonel
Dufie joined us with the Second Division. About this
time Colonel Wyndham, having been wounded, was
obliged to turn over his command to me, and my
regiment to Lieutenant-Colonel Gardner.
'' The enemy failing to attack us in our new position,
the whole command moved off to the right, toward
Rappahannock Station, where we again engaged the
enemy with our artillery, and ordered the First Penn-
sylvania to support the battery, the enemy quickly
replied, and a brisk artillery duel ensued, lasting
nearly two hours, when I received orders from Gene-
ral Gregg to report immediately with my command
to General Buford, at Beverly ford. With the First
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 51
Pennsylvania in advance, I pushed on rapidly and
reported to General Buford, who immediately ordered
me to his extreme right, where we, for the third time,
engaged the enemy; and the First Pennsylvania
displayed its usual bravery, in unsaddling a number
of the enemy, and driving them back ; thus having
disputed possession of the river, and night coming
on, we quietly crossed to the north side of the river
and bivouacked for the night.
''I cannot close this brief review, without more
especially speaking of the behavior of my officers and
men, for all seemed to vie with each other in deeds of
daring ] and I could have desired no greater effort on
the part of any one.
''I would beg leave to mention the gallant conduct
of all my field officers, — Lieutenant- Colonel D. Gard-
ner, Major Wm. T. McEwen, Lieutenant Charles C.
Townsend, adjutant of my regiment ; the latter hav-
ing been on sick list for some time, and still ill, was
at his post, during the entire engagement, rendering
''Major J. M. Gaston was not with the regiment,
being at the time, on detached service, at Division
ADDITIONAL SKETCH OF THE BATTLE OF BRANDY-
The Tth of June was spent in the hurry and bustle
of preparation. Haversacks were stored, cartridge
boxes filled, horses shod, the sick sent back, and all
the usual preparation for active campaigning gone
52 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Then commenced the irksome and wearying delays
incident to the moving of troops. Momentarily
expecting the order to move, and yet hour after hour
passing, and still not off. Evening came and night
passed, and "reveille'' awoke us to another day's ex-
pectancy. But we w^ere relieved at noon. The bugle
at division headquarters sounded the ''general,"
tents were soon struck, saddles packed, and the regi-
ments of each brigade massed in close column, when,
after an hour or two's more delay, awaiting our trains
to get on the road, ''the advance" was sounded.
Slowly pursuing our way through the heat and clouds
of dust raised by the march of a division of cavalry
over parched and arid fields, we at length reached
the vicinity of the river, and at nine p. m. bivouacked
for the night, about a mile from Kelley's ford.
The unusual precaution taken to prevent all un-
necessary noise, betokened that we were in the neigh-
borhood of the enemy, and might soon expect an
encounter. In pursuance of previous orders, we were
roused from our slumbers at three o'clock the next
morning, and before we had finished our hasty break-
fast, the thunder of Buford's cannon, borne on the
calm morning air from Beverly ford, where he had
already commenced crossing his division, brought us
to the saddle, and soon we were drawn up on the
river bank, around Kelley's ford, awaiting our turns
Meeting but little opposition from the enemy,
in half an hour we had passed the river, and were
pressing forward into the interior. Dufie's 3rd
brigade having the advance, after proceeding some
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 53
miles from the river, turned off in the direction
of Stevensburg, while our (W^mdham's) command,
moved rapidly forward, towards Brandy Station, with
orders to find the enemy, and at once engage him.
These were just the orders for our gallant and dash-
ing brigade commander. Moving forward at a brisk
trot, the First New Jersey Cavalry in front, the First
Pennsylvania Cavalry next, and Martin's battery,
and the First Maryland Cavalry bringing up the
rear. In less than an hour we had reached the
vicinity of the station, and our advance guard was
engaged with the enemy's skirmishers.
Hurrying our columns from the w^ood through
which the road had led for the last two miles. Colonel
Wyndham formed his brigade in columns of regiment,
in the open field east of the Station, and heading the
First New Jersey in person, at once ordered the
whole line to charge. Our sudden appearance on the
flank and rear of the enemy took him somewhat by
surprise, and for some minutes the hills and plains
beyond the railroad, swarmed with galloping squad-
rons of ''graybacks," hurrying to new positions, as
their line of battle was being changed to meet our
The First Maryland, with squadron A and B from
our regiment, were ordered to move down on the
Station, while Colonel Wyndham led the New Jersey
against a battery on the heights beyond the railroad,
and the balance of our regiment directed its opera-
tions against the Barbour house, a large Yirginia Man-
sion, situated on a high knoll just beyond the railroad,
and about half a mile north of the Station.
64 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
The field now presented a scene of grand and
thrilling interest. A whole brigade of cavalry '' in
column of regiment" moving steadily forward to the
attack on our side, wliile the enemy's cavalry, having
completed its new formation, stood in glittering lines,
awaiting the assault, and his artillery stationed on
every hill, with rapid flash and continuous roar,
belching forth its concentrated fire on the advancing
But still, with undaunted firmness, the brigade,
in sublime array, moved forward, first at a steady
walk, then quickening their pace to a trot, and again
as the awful space between the battle fronts, rapidly
shortened, the gallop was taken, and as the crowning
act of the grand but terrible drama, and when our
line had closed on the enemy until scarce fifty paces
intervened, the order to charge rang along our front ;
in an instant a thousand glittering sabres flashed in
the sunlight; from a thousand brave and confident
spirits arose a shout of defiance, which, as it rung
from squadron to squadron, and was caught up* by
rank after rank, mingling formed one vast, strong, full-
volumed battle-cry ; and every trooper, at the same
time rising in his stirrups, and leaning forward to meet
the shock, dashed at headlong speed upon the foe. First
came the dead heavy crash of the meeting columns,
and next the clash of sabre, the rattle of pistol and
carbine, mingling with the frenzied imprecation, the
wild shriek that follows the death blow, the demand
to surrender, and the appeal for mercy, forming the
horrid din of battle. For a few brief moments the
enemy stood and bravely fought, and hand to hand
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 55
and face to face raged the contest ; but quailing at
length before the resistless force of our attack, and
shrinking from the savage gleam %nd murderous
stroke of our swift-descending sabres, at length broke
and fled in confusion.
Following him up, soon the whole plain for a mile
in extent w^as covered with flying columns, engaged
in a general melee, which continued, until the enemy,
coming up with reinforcements, we withdrew and
When the First Pennsylvania Cavalry emerged
from the woods, at the opening of the action, it
was formed facing, and about half a mile from the
railroad, and immediately on the left and supporting
our battery. Scarcely half, the regiment had gotten
into position, when the enemy opened a battery, at
point blank range, from the eminence of the Barbour
house, hurling with great rapidity shot and shell into
our ranks. When we moved forward it was to storm
the position, and, if possible, capture the battery.
As^we marched straight forward toward the smoking
cannons' mouths, they first saluted us with spherical
case, and as the distance grew less, hurled grape and
canister into our faces. But undaunted our line
moved on, and would, doubtlessly, have taken the
guns, had it not been broken in crossing an interven-
ing ditch, which enabled the battery to move off before
the regiment could be crossed. Once beyond the
ditch, Ave formed ourselves at the foot or the base of
the heights, forming under a heavy fire poured on
us from the garden, yard and buildings surrounding
the mansion, and half of the regiment, led by Colonel
56 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Taylor, moved on the house from the front, while the
other, with Lieutenant- Colonel Gardner at its head,
swung around on its left and rear, and both wings
dashing impetuously forward, soon cleared the enemy
from the intervening space, and held possession of
An incident may be here noted illustrative of how
utterly the Southern chivalry detest and dread the
rough arguments of cold steel, when wielded by the
Northern mechanic's sinewy arm.
Just as we were raising the hill, in our charge, a
bold and audacious rebel rode forward from their
ranks and called out, " Put up your sabres, put up
your sabres, draw your pistols and fight like gentle-
men ;" but the mechanics, farmers and laborers of
Pennsylvania placed too great confidence in their tried
blades and the iron nerves of their right arms, to
follow his advice, and soon these kid-gloved gentry
blanched and shrank from the weight of their sturdy
We here met the flower of Stuart's cavalry, com-
posed of his own body guard, and White's celebrated
battalion and though unaware at the time, had
stormed and carried his headquarters ; this we learned
from his adjutant-general who was among the priso-
June the 10th we returned to camp at Warrenton
Junction, and resumed picket duty at that place.
On the afternoon of the 13th were again on the
march. Halting near Warrenton, Companies A, B
and C, Captains Wm. H. Patterson, R. J. McNitt
and Lieutenant R. S. Lawsha, with Captain Wm.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 5T
Litzenberg in charge of the detachment, was sent for-
ward to picket in the direction of Sulphur Springs and
Waterloo, and remaining here until nine P. M. of the
15th, when the regiment quietly withdrew, and march-
ing all night, reached Manassas Junction the next
morning, where, in a few hour after, it was joined by
BATTLES OE 20tH, 21sT AND 22d, FROM ALDIE'S TO
The division having concentrated here, was sup-
plied with rations, forage and ammunition, and after
a day's rest, took up its line of march on the morning
of the 15th, and moving westward, over the old Bull
Kun battle ground, struck the Centreville pike, and
reached Aldie on the afternoon of the Itth. At dark
on the 18th, we received orders to move down the
east side of the mountains to Thoroughfare Gap, and
hold it until relieved. Starting in a violent thunder
storm, we groped our way through blinding darkness,
over a miserable road, arriving at Hay Market at one
A. M., stood ^'to horse" until morning, and then
found the Gap. Relieved the following night, by the
Second Corps, we rejoined the division on the morn-
ing of the 21st, at Aldie. Here Stuart's whole force
was again met by our cavalry corps, and after two
days' desperate fighting was forced back a distance of
fourteen miles, and his routed and scattered columns
pushed into the gaps of the Blue Ridge.
Our cavalry never displayed more determined and
persistent courage than during these memorable
actions. Stone fences, with which this country is
58 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
covered, rocks, ravines, woods, ditches, buildings and
every thing available for defence was held by the
enemy, with a stubborn tenacity only excelled by the
dashing bravery of our troops. As often as dislodged
from one position he rallied on the next, holding it
until again forced back by our resistless charges.
As our division acted as reserves, we were not
engaged until the morning of the 22d, when we were
ordered to the front, and covered our retiring columns
from Upperville back to Aldie ; the enemy following in
force, pressed heavily on our brigade, the rear guard.
The First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry held the
left, and the First Kew Jersey the right of the pike,
and although they were several times during the day
attacked with great vigor and determination by the
enemy, as often hurled back his charging columns in
At Brandy Station, Stuart's vaunting legions re-
ceived their first lesson of the prowess of the Yankee
cavalry, and here the finishing stroke, which reduced
them to that point of inefficiency and worthlessness
of which General Lee complained so bitterly in his
official report of the invasion of Pennsylvania. The
Cavalry Corps, taking position again on the heights
around Aldie, the enemy made no attempt to push
CAMPAIGN INTO PENNSYLVANIA.
Kemaining at Aldie until the 26th to protect the
crossing of the infanty and trains at Edward's Ferry,
then moved forward toward the Potomac.
The regiment, as the extreme rear guard, was the
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 59
last to quit Aldie, and readied Leesburg about dark.
Eesuming march again next morning, we reached the
river about ten, A. M., at Edward's Ferry, and cross-
ing at two, P. M., drew up in close column of squadron
on the Maryland shore.
This was the first time the regim.ent had been north
of the Potomac since its first advance into Dixie, Oc-
tober the 10th, 1861. Its operations having been
confined to an area of about seventy miles square,
extending from Fredericksburg and the northern
neck of Yirginia on the east, to the Blue Eidge on
the west, and from the Potomac on the north to the
Rappahannock and Rapidann rivers and Shenandoah
Yalley on the south and southwest.
So often had this section of the sacred soil been
traversed by the marching and couter-marching of
the regiment, that every road, lane, and by-path were
as familiar to us as the localities of our own homes.
There was scarcely a town in the whole stretch of
country around which we had not engaged the enemy,
and more than once had the streets of some, as War-
renton, Aldie, Salem, and Culpepper, rung with the
clatter of our charging squadrons, as we hurried the
flying enemy from their vicinities ; scarcely a place
dignified with the name of village, which was not
marked as a skirmish ground ; a cross road at which
we had not stood post, or a fordable point on the
Rappahannock, from Port Gonway, on the east, to
where it dwindled to a mountain brook in Western
Yirginia, or on the Rapidann, from its m^outh south-
ward to Madison Court House, that we had .not
guarded. So that when once freed from the barren
60 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
wastes and the putrid air of tliis war-cursed region,
it was not without emotions of joy that we again^
after twenty months' absence, pressed a friendly soil,
and once more breathed the atmosphere of loyalty,
although we had come to roll back the tide of inva-
sion from our own homes, and protect our own hearth-
stone from a ruthless foe.
At dark, on the same evening, we again commenced
our march northward, passing through Poolesville and
Barnesville, and reaching XJrbana at daylight, halted
to breakfast. Resuming march again, crossed the
Monocacy river at the junction, and halted about
eleven, A. M., a mile east of Frederick city. Here
the regiment was detailed on special service at corps
head-quarters, and ordered to the cit}^ to do provost
duty. Leaving two companies, G and L, Captain F.
P. Confer and Lieutenant H. S. Gaul, for provost
duty, the regiment again moved forward on the after-
noon of the 29th, reaching Middleburg at two, A. M.,
the 30th. Again on the road at daylight, arrived at
Taneytown on the afternoon, and encamped in a strip
of woods a short distance beyond.
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA.
At ten o'clock, P. M., July the 1st, resumed march
northward, and traveling all night, reached the battle-
field at nine, A. M., of the 2d, and took a position, as
support for the reserve artillery of the cavalry corps,
immediately in rear of the left centre, and remaining
here all day, were withdrawn a mile to the rear at night.
Toward evening of this day, a fierce assault was
made on the left wing of the battle line, which caused
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 61
it to waver for a while before the fury of the onset ;
but the Fifth Corps coming up, just in time, a charge
from the Pennsylvania Reserves, hurled the enemy
back, retaking not only the ground lost, but pushed
our line forward a half mile beyond the original
Returning to our former post, on the morning of
the 3d. The battle opened at daylight on the right,
and raged fiercely for several hours, but the centre
and left remaining inactive until about two, P. M.,
when the enemy, in his last desperate effort, hurled
forward the concentrated weight of his force on our
centre and left. The action opened here again with
redoubled fury, and with the view of opening a
way for his advancing columns through our left cen-
tre, a point just in advance of the position occupied
by the regiment, he poured a converging fire of more
than one hundred guns on our line.
The regiment, though not engaged, was exposed to
the full force of the terrific storm, but continued in
its position until withdrawn from the range of that
blasting withering stream of death. Moving a short
distance to the rear, we remained until the enemy's
massed columns were rolled back in confusion and
defeat from the fiery front of our battle-line, for the
last time, and the shouts of victory, first starting
from Cemetery Hill, were caught up by division after
division, and echoing from line to line and corps to
corps, until the hills and w^oods and the whole broad
country, covered by our vast army, rung with one
long, loud shout of triumph; a shout that filled all
hearts with rejoicing, that made the wounded forget
62 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
their anguisli, and wMcli, as it fell on the ear of the
dying, brightened once more the glazed eye with life's
sparkle, and wreathed once again the pallid counte-
nance with the smile of joy. And well might every
heart rejoice. The day was won. Victory was ours.
The rebel hordes were beaten back. Pennsylvania
was rescued from the foul grasp of traitors, her fair
domain spared the blighting curse of sweeping
armies, and our nation's Capitol saved !
At sundown we received orders to withdraw from
the field, and find grazing for our horses. Retiring
some two miles to the rear, we turned into a field of
grass, unsaddled and turned loose our jaded and
almost famished horses, had supper, the first meal
we had been permitted to prepare for two days, and
wrapping our blankets about us, and lying down,
though pelted by a dashing rain storm, were soon en-
joying an uninterrupted and refreshing night's sleep.
Still raining next morning, and continued most of
the day. Though our Nation's Birthday, all^ was
quiet, every one appearing exhausted by the straining
tension, to which both mind and body had been sub-
ject for the last three thrilling and momentous days,
and the severe and wearing services of the two weeks
previous. Enemy still in position beyond Gettys-
burg, but no movement of importance in front, all
seeming, with common consent, to be spending the
day in resting and resuscitating their wearied and
Resuming the march again on the 5th, retraced
our steps through Taneytown, turned southward
through Greenesville, crossed the Doublepike and
PENNSYLVxiNIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 63
Monocacy rivers, and halted for the night a few miles
east of Emmetsburg, and near Creagerstown. As we
passed through this section, the people assembled
from all the neighboring districts ''to see the army,"
and never did soldiers enjoy the luxuries of richly
stored pantries than did the Union troops in passing
through this fertile region. As we moved on, toward
evening reports were brought to us that a heavy
body of the enemy's cavalry was moving down the
Emmetsburg pike. Halting before we reached the
pike, we sent forward and soon found the rumor to
be idle talk.
Next day, the 6th, we moved a mile or two for-
ward, and within sight of Creagerstown, and as the
regiment was alone, and in charge of eighteen pieces
of artillery, the reserve of the cavalry corps, it was
thought advisable not to move further without more
support, halted and remained until next day, await-
Marched back through Frederick city on the 7th,
and halting for an hour to receive rations and forage,
proceeded over the mountain to Middletown, and
stopped just beyond for the night. Rained very
heavily and found great difficulty in procuring camp-
ing ground for th^ regiment in the darkness.
On the afternoon of the 8th, moved forward to the
base of South Mountain.
On the road again on the morning of the 9th,
crossing South Mountain, on the old Sharpsburg
road, and over the battle-ground of the year before.
On the summit, a stone pillar erected, marks the
spot where General Reno fell, and moving on to the
64 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
outskirts of Boonsboro', biyouacked for the night.
Remained here during the 10th, and on the 11th
was relieved from duty with the reserve artillery,
and* ordered to report again to corps head-quarters.
Moved up to the headquarters and encamped in a
wood on the bank of the Antietam creek.
Rejoined the ^brigade again on the 12th at Boons-
boro', where we encamped and remained two days,
awaiting the concentrating of the divisions
While at Frederick city, Company A, Captain
William H. Patterson, and Company B, Captain
William Litzenberg, commanding the squadron, was
temporarily detached as an escort for army head-
quarter's train, until July the 4th, when the squadron
was ordered to report to Major-General Sedgwick,
and formed the advance skirmish line of the Sixth
Corps, in its pursuit of the enemy to the bank of the
Potomac, at Williamsport, where it was relieved and
rejoined the regiment at Boonsboro' on the 12th.
RETURN TO VIRGINIA.
The morning of the 14th again found us in the sad-
dle, with our faces turned southward, and at eight,
A. M., the Division took up its line of march toward
Harper's Ferry, where, crossing the river over a
bridge of pontoons, we formed close column, just be-
yond Bolivar, the upper town, and halted for the
In a slight skirmish, just after passing the river,
our advance, a squadron of the First Few Jersey cap-
tured a rebel colonel. Squadron I and K was sent
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 65
forward about a mile from town, to picket the ap-
proaches to it.
At sunrise the next morning, the advance was
again commenced, the Second Brigade in front. Pro-
ceeding some two miles forward, on the Winchester
pike, the command turned to the right, and by the
river road, reached Shepherdstown at noon, and im-
mediately established a strong skirmish line encircling
the town, as the enemy had shown himself in consider-
able force at different points. During the afternoon,
the town was searched, and a considerable quantity of
bacon, with other stores which had been collected for
the rebel army, found and distributed to the com-
BATTLE OF SHEPHERDSTOWN, VIRGINIA.
Our column not resuming the advance, and the
enemy apparently not disposed to make the attack,
the night and the next morning up to eleven o'clock,
passed without any hostile demonstration having been
made on either side. But shortly after this, the
enemy, doubtlessly having been reinforced, began to
display a bolder front, and about noon the rattle of
carbines on the right and rear of the town, where the
Second Brigade was formed, gave evidence that the
skirmishers were engaged. The artillery also soon
opening, in less than half an hour the whole right had
become engaged, though not a shot had been fired
from our line, which extended from the left of the
Second Brigade, eastward and nearly parallel with the
But we w^ere not to remain idle long ; the enemy's
66 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
first point of attack, as is generally the case, was but
a feint, to conceal Ms real intention, and suddenly
opening eight pieces of artillery on our left, he
directed a succession of vigorous and heavy charges
against it with the view of breaking the line, but our
cool and gallant commander, General Gregg, had too
often played the chess of battle to be caught in this
manner. A sufficient force, well protected by a high
stone fence and thick wood, was in position to meet
the attack, and gallantly resisting every effort, at
length drove him back.
Foiled in his object here, he again turned his atten-
tion to the Second Brigade. Kenewing his attack on
its lines with redoubled energy, and our regiment,
which thus far had acted as reserve, was ordered to
its support. Crossing an open space of nearly a mile,
in face of the enemy's batteries, and turning down
the Charlestown pike, and moving along it by column
of fours, a half mile further in direct line with a bat-
ter}^, sweeping its entire length, we took up the posi-
tion assigned us.
Companies I and K, Captains McGregor and
Williams were immediately dismounted and sent to
the right, and Company C, Captain McNitt, Lieuten-
ant H. McClenahan and Lieutenant Nelson; and
Company D, Captain McDonald, Lieutenant Hol-
brook and Lieutenant -Walker to the left to reinforce
the skirmish line, while the balance of the regiment
present, consisting of Company A, Lieutenant Kelly,
and Lieutenant Wilson ; Company B, Captain Litzen-
berg and Lieutenant Buzby; Company E, Captain
Newman and Lieutenant Akers, and Company F,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 6T
Captain Davidson and Lieutenant Lucas remained
mounted with sabres drawn to charge, in case the
enemy should break the advance line. The regiment
remained in this position for two hours and a half,
and until the action ceased at dark, although all the
while subject to heavy fire of infantry at close range,
and a cross-fire of artillery. As night approached,
the enemy became more desperate in his efforts to
force our line, and made charge after charge on dif-
ferent points of it with both cavalry and infantry,
aided by storms of grape and canister, but the rapid
and deadly volleys of our carbines as often forced him
back. At midnight we were withdrawn, and the Di-
vision marching through a drenching rain storm,
reached Harper's Ferry at nine A. M. next day, and
encamping on the sloping declivities of Bolivar
Heights, remained until the 19th.
AGAIN EAST OE THE BLUE RIDGE.
At the sound of the ''general," shelter tents were
struck, saddles hurriedly packed, and two P. M. found
us mounted in line and ready again for the advance.
Crossing the Shenandoah and passing around the
base of Loudon Heights, we moved forward some six
mile, and forming close column of squadron, picketed
our horses and bivouacked for the night.
On the road again at an early hour, next morning,
moved slowly forward as rear guard, and in charge of
the train, reaching Perryville, on the Leesburg and
Winchester pike, at dark. Here Companies G and L
joined the regiment, from Frederick city.
At noon on the 21st, arrived at Hillsboro', encamped
68 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
in a wood, and remained until the 23d, having our
horses shod, and the regiment supplied with rations,
forage and ammunition.
Dress parade in the evening of 2 2d.
A short respite of two days, and again southward
bound, reaching Snicker's Gap, the Brigade halted,
and our regiment was sent forward to picket Ashby's
Gap, relieving the Seventh Michigan Cavalry, a squad-
ron was sent forward to the gap, and the balance of
the regiment encamped in a wood, in rear of the
On the night of the 24th, the pickets reported the
enemy approaching, and the regiment was turned out,
but it proved to be a small party of guerrillas prowl-
ing around the lines. On the 25th, a small party
under charge of Captain R. J. McNitt, made a scout
along the mountain, north of the gap, and succeeded
in securing several horses, which had been brought
by the enemy from Pennsylvania, and placed there in
Withdrew the pickets at dark on the 26th, Sunday
evening, and taking up the line of march, passed
through ITpperville, along the Aldie and Middle-
burg pike, to Middleburg, where we joined the brigade
at two o'clock next morning. At ^ye, A. M., again
in column of route, moving over roads rendered
almost impassable by the recent rains, through Salem
and Thoroughfare Gap to New Baltimore, and thence
along the pike to Warrenton, encamping at nine,
P. M., about two miles east of town. Weather ex-
Marched at seven o'clock next morning, the 28th,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 69
to Warrenton Junction. Eetnrned to Warrenton
next day, and went into camp. Had anticipated a
few days rest liere, but were again on the road on the
morning of the 30th, and with the division crossed
the Rappahannock a short distance above Waterloo,
and moving south some eight miles, to Amisville,
establishing camp, commenced picketing toward Jef-
ferson and the Hazel river.
On the 31st, Captain J. Newman, with portions of
E and F companies made a reconnoisance to Hazel
river, and found the enemy in force on the other side.
At three o'clock on the morning of August the 1st,
our line of pickets was ordered to be advanced to the
Hazel river ; meeting no opposition, they reached it
in an hour, and when day dawned and the enemy dis-
covered our line stretching across the country so near
them, betook themselves to very rapid preparations
for an attack, but after remaining in battle line for
some time, and finding that we made no further ad-
vance, went into camp again, and some of them
coming down to the river, which was scarcely ten
paces wide, made stipulation for neither party to fire,
as long as no atcempt was made by either to cross
Scouted on the 4th, in the direction of Culpepper,
and found the enemy in force, a short distance beyond
the river. Again in the saddle for a scout at three,
A. M., on the 5th, and crossing Hazel river at day-
light, we advanced to Muddy run, some six miles
The enemy, who had permitted us to advance thus
far without ofifering any opposition, now commenced
10 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
throwing heavy columns around on our flanks, with
the view of cutting us off. But discovering his object,
ive deployed a heavy rear and flank guard, and com-
menced a rapid return ; and though greatly outnum-
bered by the enemy, who made "frequent efforts to
reach our rear, but were beaten back and foiled in
every attempt, we finally reached the river, after an
hour's sharp skirmishing, without the loss of a man.
Eeturned to the north side of the Rappahannock
on the 8th and encamped near Sulphur Springs ; the
whole regiment sent on picket.
On the 9th, Lieutenant George W. Lyon, of Com-
pany I, with a party of sixteen men, crossed the river
on a scout, and being cut off by the enemy, was sup-
posed captured ; but making his way safely through
the enemy's lines, joined General Buford's command
and returned to the regiment next day by the way of
Continuing on picket until the 15th, when we
moved to Warrenton and established camp. Here
Company H, Captain W. S. Craft, Lieutenants T.
C. Lebo and E. C. Forsyth, which were detailed on
special duty at headquarters. Sixth Army Corps,
on the 22d of last February, rejoined the regiment.
During its absence, the company was present with
the Sixth Corps at the battle and storming of
Marye's heights, in rear of Fredericksburg, May 3d,
and on the 2d and 3d of July, at the battle of Get-
A scout on the 18th to Salem by Campanies A, B,
and I, under command of Captain McGregor, and on
the 19th by the whole regiment to Greenwich and
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 7i
Gainesville. Ee-crossed the Rappaliannock on the
24th, and moved to Jefferson on picket, and returned
to Warrenton on the 2tth.
The 1st, 2d, and 3d of September were spent on
regimental and brigade drill. The regiment sent on
picket again on the 4th; established a line from Rap-
pahannock, northwest along Carter's creek, where an
outpost was surprised on the night of the 6th, and
Lieutenant George W. Lyon and Corporal Barre
were killed, and four men captured. On the morn-
ino- of the 10th the brigade started from camp at
Warrenton on a scout, in the direction of Bull Run
Mountains. At Salem our regiment was detached
and sent by way of White Plains to Middleburg. A
party of thirty men, with picked horses, under charge
of Captain R. J. McMtt, were detailed as an advance
guard. Scouring the country in every direction in
search of Moseby and his guerrillas, until noon the
next day, when we returned to camp without any
BATTLE OF CULPEPPER.
Breaking camp on the morning of the 12th, we
moved to Jeffersonville. ''To horse," sounding at
daylight on the morning of the 13th, in half an hour
the division had again taken up its line of march.
Our brigade, crossing Hazel river at Oak Shade,
moved forward to Rixlieville; and halted to await the
arrival of the second brigade, which had turned off
at a ford about a mile to the left.
Coming up at nine, A. M., it took the advance and
*J2 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
moved off in the direction of Culpepper, we following
Meeting the enemy at Muddy run, a sharp skir-
mish ensued, which lasted about a half hour, when
the enemy fell back and the division crossed. Re-
suming the advance, the second brigade now became
engaged in heavy skirmishing, which lasted all the
way to Culpepper, which we reached about noon.
Here our brigade was ordered to the front, and the
regiment being the advance guard was immediately
deployed as skirmishers. Company K, Lieutenants
Kennedy and Morgan, being on the extreme right,
and next in order; Company D, Captain McDonald,
Lieutenants Holbrook and W-alker, Company G, Cap-
tain Confer and Lieutenant Reed; Company E, Lieu-
tenant Akers; Company F, Lieutenants Lucas and
Greenlee, formed the right wing, and on the right
of the Culpepper and Cedar Mountain road. Com-
pany A, Captain Patterson and Lieutenants Kelly and
Wilson; Company B, Captain Litzenberg and Lieuten-
ant Lawsha ; Company C, Captain McNitt and Lieu-
tenant JS'elson, forming the centre and immediately
adjoining the road, and on the left in regular suc-
cession. Company I, Captain McGregor ; Company
L, Lieutenants Gaul and Buxton; and Company M,
Lieutenants Sample and Wright. Company H not
being armed with carbines, remained as a support in
rear of the centre, ready to charge when occasion
might require it. Formed in this manner, the advance .
was at once commenced, the regiment moving forward
on horseback. But scarcely had we ascended the first
range of hills when the enemy opened a scathing fire
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 73
on us from woods ^and thickets, which told fearfully
on both men and horses, exposed as they were, and
was rapidly thinning the lines, when the horses were
ordered to be sent to the rear and the men to fight
on foot. Dismounting on the spot and forming again
under the galling fire the enemy were all the while
pouring upon them, and the order to charge being
given, the whole line, stretching over the hills for
half a mile, moved forward as one man, rushing over
the open field, without a stump or stone for shelter,
on to the enemy, who from his cover poured his fire
into their faces at point blank range. And thus they
fought for three successive hours, step by step, for
four miles, only quitting the field when relieved, their
ammunition being exhausted. Not a man, from the
time the regiment went into action until it was re-
lieved, was seen, along the whole length of the line
to waver or swerve from his post ; the line oflScers on
the skirmish line with their men, encouraging them
with their presence in the numerous and successive
charges, and Colonel Taylor and Lieutenant-Colonel
Gardner, the only field officers present, with Chap-
lain Beale, acting adjutant, mounted, were targets for
a hundred rifles, riding from point to point along the
line wherever their presence were required.
The regiment never did its duty better, or showed
itself more worthy of the place it holds on the roll of
honor of its State, than on this occasion. Every
copse of woods, stone fence, thicket and ravine along
the route fought over, was taken advantage of by the
enemy, and held with a stubbornness and bravery
worthy of a better cause.
74 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
But as often as lie rallied and^made a stand, the
First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry charged his
defences, carrying them by storm, and forcing him
back to new positions.
Following this action, the regiment was engaged
in skirmishing every day until the enemy was driven
beyond the Rapidann, on the Itth ; and then, after a
respite of twelve hours, was again on the skirmish
line along the river, where it remained for twenty-
four consecutive hours, all the time exposed to a
harassing fire from the enemy's sharpshooters in
rifle-pits on the opposite bank.
Returned to Culpepper on the 18th. Again at the
Rapidann on the 22d, on picket duty. Relieved on
the evening of the 24th, and reached Culpepper on
On the morning of the 26th again on the march
northward, crossing the Rappahannock about noon,
we reached Catletts at night, and went into camp.
Continuing here, guarding the railroad and scouting
the country for some miles west of it until October,
when we again moved to the Rapahannock and
picketed its north bank in the vicinity of United
States ford. Crossing at Kelly's ford on the 11th,
and encamped at Rappahannock Station. Re-crossed
the river and moved to Fayetteville on the morning
of the 13th, and in the evening to Auburn.
BATTLE OF AUBURN.
Here our pickets were attacked early in the morn-
ing of the 14th by the enemy in force. Heavy fight-
ing commenced immediatelj^, and although the enemy
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. '75
pushed with great vigor to break our lines, and reach
the wagon trains in our rear; we held him at bay
until they passed out of danger. Our regiment being
in the extreme rear at this place, we onlj- escaped
being entirely surrounded and cut to pieces by a
heavy infantry force, which opened fire on both of
our flanks simultaneously, and •commenced rapidly
closing in on all sides of us, by the heroic bravery
and cool, determined action of the regiment.
When it emerged from the fiery circle, the converg-
ing columns of the enemy were scarcely a hu^idred
yards from, its flanks, at the point of egress; and
although raked from the rear by grape and canister,
and saluted on both sides by volleys of musketry, the
regiment marched quietly out in ^^ column of fours/^as
calmly as if passing in review, not a horse moving
faster than a walk, nor a man leaving his place, and
except those struck down by the hail of death which
swept over them from all sides, not a gap was seen in
the ranks. A sublime spectacle it was, indeed, and
as soon as the regiment had cleared itself from the
encompassing dangers. Captain H. C. Weir, A. A. G.
of the division, the whole of which had witnessed the
thrilling scene, rode forward from the side of General
Gregg, and proposed three cheers for the First Penn-
sylvania Reserve Cavalry. They were given on the
spot, and with a will too, that showed no spark of
jealousy, but how keenly a soldier appreciated his
comrades' bravery, and with an energy that rung as
shouts of defiance in the ears of the baffled foe.
After the action of the morning, the regiment con-
tinued skirmishing, as our army slowly fell back, and
16 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
was again hotly engaged in the evening at Bristow
Thursday, the 15th, continued skirmishing all day,
and until we reached Bull Run. On the 16th, still
engaged in skirmishing, crossed and re-crossed Bull
Run five times during the day.
At Wolf Run sheals, the regiment being relieved
for a few hours, the horses were unsaddled, and the
men betaking themselves to cooking, washing and
the various other little occupations which demand a
soldi^'s attention during the occasional short respites
from duty, and brief halts on the march of such vigor-
ous campaigns as this, and soon became dispersed in
the neighborhood of the camp. But they were not
permitted to enjoy this pleasure long. A party of
rebel cavalry, which had been lurking in our rear
and remained concealed in the woods, awaiting this
moment when we were least prepared for an attack,
came sweeping around a point of woods a few hun-
dred yards from camp ; but the alarm being immedi-
ately given, the bugle sounded ^'to arms," and in a
moment all in camp had snatched up their arms, and
were ready to receive the audacious intruders, who
not fancying the greeting a hundred carbines were
waiting to give them^ wheeled their horses before
coming in range, and made off again without accom-
plishing any thing further than giving some of the
men a sharp chas3 to camp, and causing the regiment
to ^'saddle up," without giving it ah opportunity to
pay them for their trouble. Picketiug along Bull
Run, and scouting the country beyond, until the 21st,
when the reo:iment moved to Gainesville, and the
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. IT
next day through Warrenton, to the vicinity of Sul-
phur Springs, where we established camp. Engaged
in picketing here until the 6th of JS^ovember, on the
evening of which we marched for Rappahannock Sta-
tion, and reaching Bealton next morning, halted until
afternoon, then moved toward the river and encamped.
Moved to Fayetteville on the 9th and established picket
line in direction of Warrenton and Sulphur Springs,
and remained until the advance over the Rapidann.
On the night of the lUh, Moseby, with one hun-
dred guerrillas, charged the picket reserve of the
first battalion, commanded by Captain Davidson,
killing one man, wounding one, and capturing three
with some horses ; but was so roughly handled, that
he soon made off with several of his number wounded.
The attack was made by about fifty, in charge of
Lieutenant Turner, dashing on Captain Davidson's
head-quarters, and F Company, from the rear ; while
Moseby, with as many more, engaged the pickets in
front. But the reserve, though dashed on without a
moment's previous notice, while lying around their
fires, were not to be overcome so easily as the enemy
doubtlessly supposed. Seizing their carbines and
pistols, and rallying in rear of their camp, immedi-
ately opened a fire, which joined by one or two volleys
from Captain McMtt's squadron, Companies A and
C, which encamped near by, was soon on the ground,
sent the modern '^Knight-errantry" scampering over
the hills in undiscriminate confusion.
On the afternoon of the 21st, Moseby again paying
us a visit, waylaid some teams near Fayetteville, and
carried off a number of mules. Our regiment beinff
IS HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ordered in pursuit, struck his trail about a mile east
of Warrenton, and pushed forward at a gallop, to
overtake him if possible, before reaching the moun-
tains. Following him in this manner, scarcely half
an hour in his rear, to Thoroughfare Gap, the night
came on, and no longer able to trace his course, we
were compelled to abandon the pursuit. We, how^ever,
captured one of his party and several horses which
lagged behind, and in a house near the gap found the
equipments, arms and overcoats of three others who
had left so hastily as not to be able to take them
along ; arrived at camp at two, A. M. ; having ridden
a distance of thirty miles through a drenching storm
ADVANCE OVER THE RAPIDANN RIVER.
On the morning of the 23d, our line of pickets was
withdrawn, camp broken up, and by four, P. M., we
were on the road with the brigade, moving toward
Rappahannock Station, reaching Bealton at ten at
night, we bivouacked a short distance beyond the
railroad. Marching the next morning we joined the
Second Brigade at Morrisville, where we halted to be
supplied with rations and forage. Next morning, the
24th, our brigade following the second, the whole divi-
sion moved toward the Rappahannock, which we
crossed about noon, at Ellis' Ford, and halted some
four miles beyond, picketing toward the Rapidann.
Here, a rain storm setting in, we remained the next
day and the day following, delayed, as we supposed,
by the inclement w^eather.
Resumed the march on the 26th, the Second Bri-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. T9
gade still leading the advanee, we pushed forward
toward the Rapidann Meeting but little opposition,
crossed the river at Ely's Ford, and moved forward
toward the Frederickburg and Germania pike ; halted
until night, then continuing the march eastward in
the direction of Spottsylvania Court House, crossed
the Fredericksburg and Culpepper and the Fredericks-
burg and Orange Court House plank roads, advanced
some ten miles further, and halted at eleven P. M.
BATTLE OF NEW HOPE CHURCH.
In the saddle again at daylight, the First Brigade
leading the advance, we struck the Fredericksburg
and Orange Court House plank road again at Par-
ker's store, a point about fourteen miles from the
latter place. Here we wero joined by the Pennsylva-
nia Peserves, the advance of the Fifth Corps, and
the whole column moved forward toward Orange
Court House. Some four miles on, the enemy's ad-
vance was met,^ which our skirmishers pushed slowly
back to New Hope Church, about two miles, when
they were next met by his main body, consisting of
infantry, cavalry and artillery, the advance of Ewell's
Corps. Our regiment being ordered to the front im-
mediately after the commencement of the action,
moved forward with the view of charging on horse-
back, but after remaining in position a short time,
awaiting to nieet a dash, threatened by the enemy on
our skirmishers, dismounted, as the dense woods
which covered the country prevented any efficient ope-
rations on horseback, and prepared to fight on foot
As soon as the order to advance was o-iyen, the
80 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
whole line, with a shout, dashed forward, broke the
enemy's lines and sweeping around on the flank, cap-
tured twenty-eight of his infantrj^ with muskets and
bayonets in nand, while our only arm was the carbine
We then established a line and held it against every
effort of the enemy to break it, for two hours, and
until relieved by the Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry.
This was the second time, at Fredericksburg and
here, that the regiment was relieved when the press
of battle became too heavy for its light lines, by this
famed group of regiments, whose brilliant achieve-
ments have carved for them a name so high on the
scroll of honor, — the family of the Pennsylvania Re-
serves, in which we claim a sister part.
Additionnl Particulars.— 0\xv line was formed, the
right consisting of Companies K, Lieutenant Ken-
nedy, and Company L, Lieutenant Buxton, resting
on the plank road ; the centre. Company G, and part
of H Company, Captain Confer and Lieutenant Reed,
and the left, E, Captain Newman and Lieutenants
Akers and Herrick; D, Lieutenants Holbrook and
Walker, and M, Lieutenant Wright, extending to the
railroad. Squadron B and I, Captains Litzenberg
and McGregor and Lieutenant Lawsha remaining
mounted, were employed as skirmishers on the ex-
treme right, and the portion of Company H not sup-
plied with carbines, left in charge of led horses.
After the regiment had been dismounted and thus
formed, the order to deploy as skirmishers was given,
and although on the open ground and under heavy
fire, the movement, ''left into single rank" was exe-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 81
cuted as calmly and correctly as on the parade
ground. Then m steady, regular line, the advance
commenced toward the wood by which the rebel line
was covered, but scarcely had ten paces been made,
when the enemy, rising from their concealment, with
a hideous discord of sickly, screeching yells, so pecu-
liar to them, poured a volley into our line. Without
a recoil, or even a halt at this sudden and unexpected
attack, the regiment no sooner caught sight of the
enemy than some one in the line shouted, ''charge,'^
and with one full determined cheer, forward it dashed
over ditches, stumps and brush, and through the
enemy's first line, completely breaking his formation,
capturing the men or compelling them to fling away
their arms in the attempts to escape, and forcing the
whole line back, fully three hundred yards, and until
checked by his reserve infantry.
At the same time that the First Pennsylvania Re-
serve Cavalry started forward on the charge, the First
New Jersey Cavalry, (that first of Cavalry regiments,)
joining lines, immediately on its right, and fighting
side by side, as on many a field before, catching up
the shout that rung from our ranks, at once joined in
the advance, and on swept the twin regiments, each
vicing with the other in deeds of daring, and yet each
generously awarding to the other the meed of praise.
At dark the regiment was ordered back to Parker's
store, and passed a rainy night in a low, marshy
wood, and the next day moved some three miles west
to the Wilderness tavern, on the Fredericksburg and
and Culpepper pike to picket. On the afternoon of
the 29th, the camps of the Third Pennsylvania and
82 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
First Massachusetts Cavalry were attacked by Hamp-
ton's Division, and a portion of the Third Pennsylva-
nia forced back to our line. We immediately formed
line along the plank road, and awaited the enemy's
coming, but he drew off without any further demon-
stration. On the 30th we again marched back to
Parker's store, where another dash of the enemy
brought us again into battle line, but it proved to
be only a scouting party, and we were soon with-
drawn and went to making ourselves comfortable
around large fires, as the weather was extremely
The evening of the 1st of December again found
us at the Wilderness tavern, where we stood to horse
all night, awaiting the army, which was now falling
back to pass.
The last of the infantry having gone by, our regi-
ment being the rear guard, we commenced at nine,
A. M., of the 2d, slowly withdrawing, hurrying up
the stragglers before us, and skirmishing with the
enemy, who was hovering on our rear. In this man-
ner we reached the river at noon, crossed and rested
in the woods on the west side.
Picketing along the Rapidann until the 6th, and
moved to Brandy Station. Remained here until the
1 0th, and then marched for Warrenton. Arrived on
the 12th and went into winter quarters, encamping
just east of the town,- in a beautiful and healthful
situation, and by the 20th had excellent winter quar-
On the 2 2d the regiment, under command of Cap-
tain Davidson, Colonel Taylor being at the time in
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 83
command of the division, and Lieutenant- Colonel
Gardner in command of the brigade, marched with
the Sixth Ohio Cavalry to Amisville, to join. a por-
tion of the second brigade in a scout to Luray val-
ley; but not reaching that place until some hours
after the second brigade had passed by, the detach-
ment, in pursuance of instructions, returned to camp.
On the night of the 25th, Captain Newman, with
one hundred men, in conjunction with a similar de-
tachment from the First New Jersey, made a scout
to Salem ; the party capturing two guerrillas.
January the 1st, 1864, the regiment marched with
the division in a reconnoissance to the Shenandoah
valley, but on arriving at Front Royal, on the even-
ing of the 2d, found the Shenandoah river too high
from recent rains to ford, and were unable to proceed
further. Bivouacking on the bank of the river for
the night, next morning commenced return to camp,
reaching it on the afternoon of the 4th. During the
four days out, the weather was very severe, and the
command suffered much from cold and exposure.
Scout on the 8th to Salem.
February the mh, a detachment of one hundred
men. Captain McGregor, Lieutenant Kennedy and
Lieutenant Kelly, from the regiment, with an equal
number from the First New Jersey, and smaller
detachments from the First Massachusetts and Third
Pennsylvania Cavalry, started under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Kester, (First New Jersey Ca-
valy,) on a scout to Ashby's Gap, in the vicinity of
which they surprised and captured twenty-eight of
Moseby's guerrillas, with a number of horses, arms,
84 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
and equipments, and destroyed a considerable quan-
tity of stores.
The following is an account of the affair, furnished
by Captain T-. C. McGregor :
''At midnight of the Itth we started from the rear
of Warrenton, where the detachment had assembled.
The night was exceedingly cold, yet by daylight
we were thirty miles on our way, and had already
begun to bag our prisoners. About ten, A. M., of
the 18th inst., Moseby's whole crew rallied and made
a desperate attack, evidently for the purpose of
recapturing the prisoners A part of the First Penn-
sylvania Reserve Cavalry turned upon them, and
never did they get so complete a whipping in so short
a time as on that frost}?- morning, near Ashby's Gap.
Had it not been that our horses were jaded while
their's were fresh, we would have added largely to
our number of prisoners. After destroying their
head-quarters, hospital stores, a large quantity of
whiskey and commissary stores, and capturing a
quantity of clothing and a mail, we started on our
return, bringing off twenty-eight prisoners and over
sixty horses. Once more they attempted the rescue
of their comrades at TJpperville, but the First New
Jersey Cavalry taught them another severe lesson.
In this affair, Captam Hart, of the First New Jersey,
was slightly wounded, and this was the only casualty
on our side. We reached camp the same night, after
having marched about sixty-five miles in less than
twenty-four hours. Such is cavalry service in
Marched February the 2tth, seven officers and two
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 85
hundred men from the regiment, under command of
Captain Davidson, with other detachments from the
division, joined General Custar in a raid to Char-
lotteville, on the left and rear of Lee's army. Were
absent five days and marched a distance of one hun-
dred and seventy-eight miles.
March the Ith, scout of fifty men, under command
of Captain McGregor, sent to New Baltimore.
The 8th, another scout of fifty men to Sulphur
Springs and Waterloo, under charge of Lieutenant
At eleven, P. M., the 9th, one hundred men, Cap-
tain Litzenberg, Lieutenants Forsyth and Buxton,
with one hundred men from the First New Jersej^,
made a scout to Salem.
19th. Captain McNitt and Lieutenant Lucas, with
one hundred men, made a scout to Salem, charged a
party of the enemy, driving them from the town, and
capturing one of their number.
21st. Captain Confer, with seventy men, made a
scout to Sulphur Springs ; another next day, by Cap-
tain Litzenberg, Lieutenants Herrick and Buxton, ,
with one hundred men.
To sum up, in brief, the duties of the regiment
have, during the present winter thus far, been the
most constant, exhausting service it has ever per-
formed. An extensive and exposed line to guard b}''
vigilant picketing, constant annoyance from bands of
guerrillas, with numerous and fatiguing scouts, have
kept the men almost constantly on duty.
Of scarcely four hundred men present for duty
with the regiment, it has furnished a daily aggregate
86 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
of ninety-five men for picket duty, with nearly an
equal number for scouts, guards, and other details..
This severe sm'vice, with the exposure incident to a
cavalryman's duties in winter, has told heavily in
reducing the effective strength of the regiment. But
spring is here again. Another winter's storms have
been met and borne on the tented field, and the ver-
nal winds with the strengthening beams of an April
sun are rapidly preparing the roads for travel. For
weeks the work of preparation has been hurrying on
to reach its present consummation. Worn out and
condemned horses, arms and accoutrements have
been supplied by new ones ; daily inspections and
reviews have detected and sought to correct or re-
memedy every evil and deficiency ^in the ranks ; all
visitors to the army have been sent home, none but
soldiers are wanted here now; the haversack is
packed, the cartridge-box refilled, the sabre, the mus-
ket and the cannon cleansed and burnished, and we
stand ready for the field.
Day by day we await the notes of bugle from
Division Head-quarters, sounding the ^^ general," and
at the same time announcing the opening of the spring
campaign of the Army of the Potomac for 1864.
The ranks that were thinned by disease and battle
during the last year, have been more than filled by
recruits. Another directing spirit has been assigned
the control of our giant war machine, the laurelled
Chieftain of the West, and the army will go forth as
buoyant with hope, as determined in resolve, and
stronger in numbers, more efficient in discipline, and
schooled by experience and hardship— in nerve and
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 87
sinew more potent in its operations, and more reliable
in its endurance than ever before.
Here we pause in this imperfect summary of the
operations of the regiment for thirty-two months of
its life. Four more months still remain, and it will
have fulfilled the period of its organization. What
events remain to be chronicled in this brief, but
doubtlessly active period, before its history closes, or
the old organization merges into a new one, stamped
with the honored name of Veterans, are yet hidden
in the future.
THE CAVALRY, ITS ARMS, ETC.
During the first fifteen months of the war, much
of the cavalry being scattered through the army,
attached to divisions and corps, and employed as
escorts, guard and advance pickets, &c., and little of
it being so organized as to be prepared to act inde-
pendently, (though its duties were as severe as they
have ever been since,) its opertions were so difi'used
as to afford it little opportunity of showing what
might be done if its services were properly applied.
And as a natural consequence, it began to be looked
upon as an almost useless appendage to the army.
But the collecting and organizing of the cavalry of
this army, at least, during the winter and spring of
1863, into* brigades, divisions, and a separate corps,
with horse artillery attached,- have enabled it, by the
services of, the past year, to earn for itself an honor-
able position beside the other arms of the service,
and to establish a rank in efficiency and in import-
ance second to none in the army. Though the
88 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
peculiarities of the country in whicli we operate have
compelled the change of our light armed troops to
dragoons or heavy cavalry ; yet, wherever they have
been privileged to meet the enemy as cavalry proper,
in the charge and with the sabre, they have shown
themselves superior to him in ever}^ respect, as
Brandy Station, Aldie, Gettysburg, and various
other fields will attest. The experience, however,
of the last campaigns have clearly established the
supremacy of the carbine as the cavalryman's most
effective weapon — compelled, as he is, in this country
of forests, thickets, fences, ditches and stone walls, to
fight, much of the time, on foot — the pistol being
seldom used, and generally only in close contest,
when the sabre or carbine are lo^t or fail; and it
is scarcely decided whether its effectiveness over-
balances its cost to the Government and the incon-
venience of carrying it.
CAMPAIGNING OF 1864 AGAINST RICHMOND.
Services of the regiment during the last five months
of its term, viz. : April, May, June, July and
The month of April, up to the 21st, was chiefly
spent in drilling, reviews, &c. Early this morning,
however, the long expected order to break camp was
received, and soon all were engaged in the^hurry and
bustle of preparation: By eleven, A. M., our winter
habitations had disappeared, and in an hour more the
division was on it^way toward Warrenton Junction.
Halting three milJPfrom the Junction, we found fine
camping-ground, and the division was soon disposed
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 89
along Turkey Run, a small stream which afforded
facilities for watering.
Here we remained until the 24th, when the regiment
was detailed for picket duty, and marched at 5 A. M.
for Morrisville, eighteen miles southeast, and near the
Rappahannock river. Establishing a picket head-
quarters at this place, and connecting with the Tenth
New York Cavalry at Grove Church, four miles fur-
ther down the river, and picketing the various roads
leading to the river, and also back into the country,
we remained ^ntil the advance across the Rapidann.
While engaged in this duty, the command was greatly
annoyed by guerrillas and dismounted cavalrj^men,
who crossed the river for the purpose of procuring
horses, and concealing themselves in the woods and
thickets, watched their opportunity to fall on and
capture pickets and small scouting parties. On the
night of the 28th, Major R. J. Falls, with seventy-five
men, made a scout to Falmouth, twenty-five miles
distant; and on the 2d of May, Captain Davidson,
with one hundred men, paid that place another visit ;
but neither party found any force of the enemy this
side of the river, and consequently met with no inci-
dent worthy of note.
May 8d, withdrew our pickets at eight A. M.
Crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly ^s Ford, and re-
joined the division at Richardsville, near the Rapidann.
In the saddle again at one' o'clock next morning,
moved slowly forward toward the Rapidann, which
we reached at four, and crossing at Ely's Ford, halted
until after daylight. Contrary^ to expectation we
met but a small force of the enemy here, merel}^ a
90 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
picket-guard, which was scattered by a few shots, and
our crossing left unopposed. Kesuming our march at
sunrise, we halted for an hour or two at Chancellors-
ville, and then pushed forward some six miles, and
encamped for the night near Pine Creek Church.
The Second Brigade, which led the advance from
Chancellorsville had some slight skirmishing toward
FIGHT AT TODD'S TAVERN.
Next morning, the 5th, moved slowly forward to-
ward Spottsylvania Court House, forming repeatedly
and feeling for the enemy. At two P. M., we received
orders to move rapidly forward and take possession
of Todd's tavern, some three miles in advance of our
present position. Arriving at that point we found a
brigade of our infantry in battle line, and the Third
Cavalr}^ Division, commanded by General Wilson,
moving back in haste and confusion, hotly pushed by
the enemy. Our brigade was immediately thrown
forward to cover the rear of the Third Division, and
meeting the enemy in a charge, at once became sharply
engaged, but soon succeeded in checking his lines, and
hurrying him back faster than he had advanced.
Following him up with charge after charge, and
though obstinately contesting the ground he was at
length compelled to fall back across the Po river,
some three miles distant.
In this engagement. Colonel Taylor, with seven
companies, acted in conjunction with the brigade,
while Lieutenant-Colonel Gardner, who, just previous
to the opening of the action had been sent with the
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CxiVALRY. 91
other five companies down the Spottsylvania Court
House road, with instructions to push forward to that
place. This, however, he soon found himself unable
to do, as he was met by a heavy force of the enemy,
when scarcely two miles out, and his own party with
a battalion of the First Massachusetts Cavalry sent
to his support heavily pressed for some two hours,
and until relieved by the Second Brigade.
At dark the regiment was placed on the skirmish
line, where it remained until four, P. M., next day,
being engaged in occasional skirmishing during the
Retired some three miles on the evening of the 6th,
and at noon of the Hh again moved forward to our
former position at Todd's tavern.
SECOND FIGHT AT TODD'S TAVERN.
The First Division being in order of battle, imme-
diately commenced the attack, and our brigade moving
forward, took position on its left. Shortly after
arriving on the ground, the regiment was ordered out
to meet an advance the enemy were making on our
extreme left. Dismounting two battalions, and join-
ing the Sixth Ohio, which connected with the left of
the First Division, we pushed forward on the Spott-
sylvanip, Court House road. A charge was immedi-
ately commenced along our whole line of battle,
and the enemy, although stubbornly resisting the
movement for a time, was at length compelled to give
way, retiring in such haste as to leave all his dead
and wounded on the field, and a number of prisoners
in our hands. Encamped on the battle-field at night.
92 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ISText day, the 8th, recrossed Pine creek, and at
night moved back to the Fredericksburg plank road,
where the Cavalry Corps was concentrating. The
regiment on picket in the direction of Chancellors-
THE RICHMOND RAID
May the 9th, marched with the Cavalry Corps on a
grand raid, in the direction of Richmond. Crossed,
during the day's march, the Massaponax, Ny, Po and
FIGHT AT CHILDSBURG.
When about ten miles out, the First Division, which
led the advance, met a party of the enemy, who con-
tinued harassing our advance and right flank during
the entire day, growing more bold and persistent as
evening came on. About five, P. M., the rear, which
was guarded by our brigade, became heavily pressed,
and a charge on the Sixth Ohio, which constituted
the extreme rear guard, forced th«m back on our regi-
ment, which formed its support. Some little confusion
was at first occasioned by the sudden attack, but our
line was soon formed, and a sharp fight commenced,
which lasted until dark, when we withdrew our skir-
mishers and continued the march. Halted at mid-
night on the north bank of the North Anna; and
brought into the saddle again at three o'clock in the
morning, by a shower of the enemy's shells. Cross-
ing the North Anna at daylight, marched to Beaver-
dam Station, which the First Division had destroyed,
and crossing South Anna river at Ground Squirrel
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CxiVALRY. 93
Bridge, about four, P. M., encamped a few miles
Heavy skirmishing in front and on the right flank
during the day. Wednesday, 11th, fighting, but
moving steadily forward. Our brigade detached and
sent to Ashland, some eight miles distant, destroyed
the station, and after a severe skirmish, in which the
First Massachusetts Cavalry lost heavily, rejoined
the division at one P. M. The First Division and
Second Brigade of our Division were heavily engaged
at Hungary Station and Yellow Tavern during the
entire afternoon, but handsomely repulsed the enemy at
every point. General Custer's Brigade capturing two
pieces of artillery and a number of prisoners. Our
brigade, being held in reserve, was not engaged.
BATTLE OF MEADOW BRIDGE, OR RICHMOND HEIGHTS.
Marching all night, passing down the Brock road
to within tw6 and a half miles of Richmond, and
daylight of the 12th found us, with the First Division,
crossing the Chickahominy river, at Meadow Bridge,
the Third Division following next in order, and our
division drawn up between Richmond and the
river to guard the crossing. The First Division be-
came hotly engaged as soon as it reached the north
side of the Chickahominy, and the Second, our Divi-
sion, was assailed on three sides as soon as it was
sufficiently light to make the attack. Every effort
was made by the enemy to break the lines of our divi-
sion and push us back into the river and swamp. But
as often as he came up, he was driven back with
heavy loss. The fighting continued thus, the enemy
94 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
charging, time after time, only to be hurled back,
until about eleven A. M , when, apparently completely
disheartened by his repeated repulses, he withdrew,
and we quietly crossed over the bridge, reaching the
north side of the Chickahominy about three P. M.
Continuing the march, the corps passed through
Mechanicsville, and encamped beyond Gaines' Mills.
Friday 13th, marched ten miles and encamped at
Bottoms Bridge. Crossed Bottoms Bridge on the
14th, and reached James river at Haxall's Landing.
Our regiment, having the advance of the corps, was
sent forward to open communication with the gun-
boats. Mistaking us for rebel pickets, they opened
on us, and gave us several shells before we could make
ourselves known, but fortunately the shells did us no
harm. Remained here during the 15th, 16th and Itth,
but moved out at seven P. M. of the I'Tth, and marched
all night. Crossed Jones' Bridge on the 18th and
encamped at Baltimore Cross roads. Left Baltimore
Cross roads at five A. M., the 20th, and marched to
Cold Harbor. Marched to the White House on the
22d. Crossed the Pamunky river on the 23d, on the
railroad bridge, and marched via Brandywine to
Ayletts. On the 24th marched to White Chimneys,
and on the 25th rejoined the army at Chesterfield
Station, and encamped three miles to the rear, having
been absent about seventeen days. Moved again at
two P. M. of the 26th', marching all night, and cross-
ing the Pamunky on pontoons, at Hanovertown, at
daylight of the 2nh.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 95
BATTLE OF HAWS' SHOP, OR ENON CHURCH.
Marched at eight, A. M., of the 28th, to Haws'
shop. The regiment being ordered out on a scout,
met the enemy in less than half a mile from the
brigade, and at once engaged him. Having attacked
a squadron of the Tenth New York Cavalry, which
was on picket, he was hurrying it down the road,
when his charge was met by the head of our column.
The first battalion Companies A, C. G and H, com-
manded by Major R. J. Falls, moving off the road;
the third battalion, Companies B, K, D and M, com^
manded by Captain Litzenberg, charged, clearing
it and hurrying the enemy back half a mile, to his
support. Our line was then formed, the third bat-
talion holding the road, the second battalion on the
right and the first on the left of it, and the whole
regiment immediately dismounting under a heavy
fire, advanced to the attack. The division now also
coming up, the action soon became general, and the
fighting at once assumed the most desperate char-
At point blank range the contending parties fought
for seven hours, neither able to carry the other's posi-
tion, but each determined to hold its own. So rapid
and constant was the firing, that during this time the
regiment, though scarcely two hundred of it being
engaged, expended upward 'of eighteen thousand
rounds of ammunition. Many of our carbines, also,
became so heated as to render them for a time en-
tirely useless; and so the fighting continued until
half past four, P. M., when the division, being rein-
96 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
forced by General Custar's brigade of the first
division, our whole line dashed forward in one of the
most gallant charges of the war, carrying every thing
before it, driving the enemy for three miles and
strewing the track of his routed columns with hun-
dreds of his dead and wounded. Too much cannot
be said in commendation of the steadiness and gal-
lantry of the regiment in this, one of the fiercest and
most obstinate actions in which the cavalry has been
engaged. Occupjdng the centre of the line, and
holding the road where the heaviest of the fighting
occurred, our loss was, consequently, very severe.
Withdrew from the field at midnight and encamped
near the river.
At four, P. M., of the 29th, marched to near New
Castle and encamped.
At two, P. M., 30th, marched to the front. The
regiment set out at dark to picket at Bethesda
Church, on the flank of the army. Relieved at two;
P. M., of the 31st; in camp two hours and then or-
dered to the front again, standing to horse all night.
Wednesday, June the 1st, the brigade moved to
the support of the first division at Cold Harbor, and
by heavy skirmishing, held the enemy until relieved
by the infantry, when we moved some four miles to
the left and rear, and encamped.
FIGHT AT barker's MILLS.
On the 2d moved around on the left flank of the
army and engaged the enemy's infantry at Barker's
Mills. The regiment was ordered from the rear of
the column to the front and extreme right to charge
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 97
a battery, but after making the attack the battery
was found to be protected by a swamp in front, and
supported by a heavy force of infantry, sheltered by
earthworks. The regiment, however, moved forward
under a raking fire of artillery and infantry, and took
up a position in close range of the enemy's works, and
held it until our heavy lines of infantry came up. ' We
here lost heavily in both men and horses. Marched
in the evening to Bottom Bridge and encamped.
Kemained in camp during the 3d, and rej^eived sup-
plies. Shelled the enemy on the opposite side of
the Chickahominy this evening, and on the 4th our
camp was shelled by the enemy in return; one man
wounded and several horses killed in the regiment.
Our camp shelled again on the 6th, but no damage
THE TREVILLIAN RAID.
Marched at seven, P. M., toward the Pamunky
river, crossed on pontoons, near New Castle, at mid-
night. Received supplies on the Uh, and continued
marching at nine, A. M., and encamped near Ayletts.
Marched at five, A. M., of the 8th, and encamped
near Pole Cat Station.
On the 9th, crossed the railroad at Pole Cat Sta-
tion, passed through Childsburg and ]S[ew Market,
south of Spottsylvania Court House, and encamped
at N. E. Creek.
On the 10th, continued our march toward Gordons -
ville, and encamped on the North Ann river. Crossed
the North Ann on the 11th, the first division and part
of the second heavily engaged along the railroad
98 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
from Louisa Court House to Trevillian Station, and
succeeded in forcing the enemy back seven miles,
and capturing four liundred and eighty prisoners.
The regiment being the extreme rear guard, was en-
gaged in picketing and protecting the trains.
Relieved from picket on the 12th, and joined the
brigade at Trevillian Station. Was ordered to the
front at three, P. M., to report to General Torbert,
commanding the first division, and placed in support
of a battery, was exposed to heavy shelling, but not
otherwise engaged. At dark ordered to the extreme
right under a heavy fire of artillery, but not being
needed, was returned and sent back to our brigade.
The corps, after accomplishing the destruction of
the railroad for several miles, commenced withdraw-
ing at nine, P. M , and marched all night. Crossed
the North Anna at nine, A. M., 13th, and encamped
between Plentiful river and Horseforemost river.
Resumed the march at ^.ye, A. M., of the 14th, and
encamped at Catharpen river, on the Fredericksburg
road. On the 15th marched by Spottsylvania Court
House to within three miles of Guinea Station. On
the 16th crossed the Ta and Mattapony rivers, passed
through Bowling Green and encamped twelve miles
beyond, near Mattacocy creek. Marched through
Newtown and Clarkesville on the 11th, and encamped
on Roy's creek. On the 18th passed through Walker-
town and King and Queen Court House, crossing An-
seaman. Tide, and Court House creeks, and encamped
near Corbin's Mill, on the river road leading to West
Point. On the 19th, countermarched via King and
Queen Court House, Walkertown and Clarkesville, and
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 99
encamped at Dunkirk, on the Mattapony. Crossed the
Mattapony on pontoons, on the 20th, and marched
via Ayletts and King William Court House to White
House Landing. The regiment being the advance of
the corps, encamped on the river bank near the rail-
road bridge. *
ENGAGEMENT AT WHITE HOUSE.
The enemy having appeared in force on the oppo-
site side of the river, commenced an attack early this
morning on the defences of the place, shelling the
corps train which was parked here awaiting our re-
turn, and compelling its removal to the north bank
of the river, so that when we arrived here, instead of
the short respite we had anticipated after the long
and exhausting services of this memorable raid, we
found the enemy again in our front, whose force must
be met, forced back and held at bay until our trains
could be moved to the south side of the James river;
where the army had gone a week before. Accord-
ingly, at two, A. M., of the 21st, we were aroused
from our half finished slumbers, and hastily equipping
ourselves for a fight on foot, left our horses in charge
of a guard, and crossed the river with the division to
repel an attack expected at daylight ; but after await-
ing several hours, it was found that the enemy had
withdrawn and taken up a position on the elevated
ground some two miles back^from the landing. Our
brigade at once returned to camp on the other side ;
mounted and re-crossing the river, moved forward to
the support of the second brigade, which had ad-
vanced on foot to feel the enemy's position.
100 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT.
The first division having crossed the river during
the morning, formed on the left of the second, con-
tinuing a line which encircled the landing a mile or
two from the fortifications. Though the enemy were
seen to manoeuvre large bodies of troojgs in our imme-
diate front, no attack was made, and every thing
remained quiet, except some slight skirmishing along
the line of the second brigade, until four, P. M. The
regiment, which, with the brigade, had been lying in
reserve up to this time, was now dismounted and
marched a mile across the country to make an attack
on the flank of the enemy, and capture or compel the
removal of a gun which was annoying our skirmishers.
Arriving at the point designated, our line was formed
and supported by a single mounted squadron of the
First Kew Jersey Cavalry, the advance commenced,
along a narrow strip of cleared land, skirted on all
sides hy dense woods. Pursuant to orders, but con-
trary tp the judgment of the officers of the regiment,
it was pushed rapidly forward without the protection
of skirmishers on either flank, until it had reached the
wood at the farther end, fully half a mile distant. The
result was, that scarcely had the attack commenced in
front, when the enemy advanced from the woods on
both flanks and opened a galling fire on our rear. To
retrace our steps, and precipitately too, was the only
course left. The whole regiment was fairly entrapped,
and though three officers and thirty-five men were left
killed, wounded or prisoners in the hands of the ene-
my, it only saved itself from total destruction by that
steady coolness which has won it honors on so many
fields. Fighting furiousl}^ as it withdrew, the enemy^s
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 101
flanking columns were kept back until clear of his
encircling fire, when a new line was formed and his
advance permanently checked. This brief but unfor-
tunate affair, one of those inexplicable occurrences
incident to the chances of war, and for which no one
is responsible, being the first that has fallen to the lot
of the regiment, a fact which reflects the highest
credit upon the efficieney and military abilities of its
officers, caused much regret, especially as so many
of oar brave comrades were sacrificed without any
material advantage having been gained, Instead,
however, of any censure being attached to either the
officers or men, as the former led the latter only
where they were ordered to go, the action of the regi-
ment was highly complimented by General Gregg,
division commander, and it was congratulated by the
entire brigade on its comparatively fortunate escape.
The earnest and candid maimer, too, in which the
men exculpated Colonel Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel
Gardner, and all the officers of the regiment from
any blame in the matter, with the unswerving con-
fidence the regiment has alwaj^s awarded to the
efficiency and ability of its officers, and which was
here increased rather than diminished, was only
equalled by the proud satisfaction with which the
officers, in return, expressed their admiration of the
gallantry and coolness of the men. At dark the regi-
ment was withdrawn from the battle-field, and Cap-
tain Davidson, with his battalion, placed on picket,
while the balance of the regiment bivouacked a short
distance to the rear.
102 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT.
Marched at noon of the 22d, to Baltimore Cross
roads, and took up a position, holding the roads for
the protection of the wagon train, on its passage to
the James river. Crossed the Chickahominy at Jones'
Bridge, an the 23d, and encamped at Charles City.
The regiment on picket at Hopewell Church.*
BATTLE OF ST. MA*IY'S CHURCH.
The First Division, with the trains, passed on in
our rear, toward the James river during the night and
morning, while our division, this morning (the 24th)
continued it advance on a road at right angles with
the Charles City Court House road, and running
parallel with the Chickahominy river, and some four
miles from it. The Second Brigade, being in front,
met the enemy's pickets about three miles out, and
pushing them back a short distance, came on his main
body in strong position, near St. Mary's Church. The
Second Brigade at once formed its lines in an open
field, the right extending across the road, and the
left forming a semi-circle, until joined by the First
Brigade, part of which was formed so as to extend the
line parallel with the road a half a mile to the rear,
and thus protect that flank, while the balance of the
brigade, formed in column of regiment, composed the
The day, until half-past four, passed with slight
skirmishing by the Second Brigade, and occasionally
a sharp encounter for a few moments, when the enemy
would throw a force forward to feel our lines, which
he did at various points during the day. Suddenly,
at this hour, however, apparently fully advised of our
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 103
position and strength, lie advanced, making a vigor-
ous and simultaneous attack on our whole line. To
meet this, the portion of our brigade in reserve was
at once sent forward, and in less than twenty minutes
after the attack had been made, the whole division
was hotiy engaged. It soon became evident that the
enemxy far out-numbered us; but the division, with
its accustomed steadiness, fought him for fully two
hours, and until overwhelming numbers, pouring in
upon it from three sides, compelled its lines to give
way and move hurriedly back.
But although assailed, as we afterwards learned,
by the whole Rebel Cavalry Corps, supported by
fifteen hundred dismounted men, yet such was the
persistent courage displayed by the command, and
the skill with which our retreat was managed, that in
falling back six miles, the enemy failed to capture a
single cannon, caisson, wagon or ambulance, and made
prisoners of but few of our men. When the last gene-
ral onset was made by the enemy, the regiment,
which had been in support of our battery during the
day, w^as immediately dismounted and sent to take a
position on a commanding eminence, which enabled
it, at the same time, to protect the battery and sup-
port the left of our line. The enemy having discovered
the importance of the position, was hurrying forward
at the same time to occupy it, but our boys, by hard
running, reached it a few moments in advance, and by
a volley or two pushed his columns back again to the
shelter of the woods, where a constant and well-di-
rected fire kept him, until our forces had passed by on
the right, and all withdrawn from the field. The
104 HISTORY or B?HE FIRST REGIMENT
enemy coming down with a mounted force on our
right and rear, just as the regiment commenced
moving back, cut it off from the line of our retreating
column ; but by making a detour through the woods
on our left, we soon succeeded in joining its rear, with
which we continued until the enemy discontinued the
pursuit, when we withdrew to Charles City Court
House, reaching that place at eleven P. M. In this
action, as in the three preceding ones, our loss was
heavy as will appear by the appended list of casual-
The regiment stood to horse during the night of the
24:th, and shortly after daylight?, moved with the divi-
sion a short distance forward, and formed on the right
of the First Division, which held the road leading to
the battle-field of the day before. Ascertaining, how-
ever, that the enemy had withdrawn, the division
marched at eleven A. M., toward the river, and
established camp near Wyandott's Landing.
Here closed General Sheridan's second grand raid,
the corps having been absent from the army nineteen
days, and engaged in either marching or fighting the
entire period, without a single day's respite. Crossed
the James river on transports on the night of the 2tth,
and encamped three miles south of the river. Marched
again at sundown of the 29th, and arrived at daylight
at Prince George Court House. Resting an hour or
two, moved forward 'to Blackwater creek and en-
camped. The regiment sent forward to picket the
Petersburg and Jerusalem Plank road. July the 1st,
rejoined the brigade at Templeton. Returned on the
2d, via Prince George Court House, and encamped
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 105
near the City Point and Petersburg roads. Marched
on the 4th, toward the James river and established
camp near Light House Point.
Here we enjoyed the first pause of more than two
days' length from the unremitting labors of the march
and the battle-field since we crossed the Rapidann,
on the 4th of May. Of the sixty-one days which had
elapsed since the commencement of Grant's grand
campaign against Pichmond, fifty-four had been
spent by the cavalry in either marching, scouting,
picketing, or fighting. Being much of the time also
in the immediate presence of the enemy, we were sub-
ject to that unceasing vigilance which exerts every
energy to its utmost tension, and wears away the
spirits and the strength, more rapidly than the heavy
toils of steady and constant labor ; such as the slow,
cautious and wearisome march, now halting, now'
marching again, now forming, dismounting and stand-
ing to horse, then remounting, changing position and
forming again ; aroused at night and hurried into
line, to spend the drowsy hours until morning, in the
saddle, hungry and jaded, a whole day without an
opportunity of "cooking coffee," and then, when a
moment's leisure is had and the tempting and grateful
beverage is almost prepared, hurried away from the
untasted meal to hours more of the fatiguing duty, —
so that grateful indeed were these days of respite
after two months thus spent. '
ENGAGEMENT AT REAM'S STATION.
Broke camp again on the evening of the 11th of
July, and marching all night, arrived at Prince
106 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
George Court House, at day light. After an hour's
halt to breakfast ; continued the march, crossing the
Petersburg and Suffolk Kailroad and moving along
the Jerusalem plank road toward Warwick swamp.
When two miles from the swamp, the division halted,
and our brigade taking a right hand road, moved off
in the direction of Ream's Station. The regiment
having the advance of the brigade, was ordered to
deploy skirmishers and push rapidly forward to the
station, some three miles distant. Our line was
accordingly formed. Companies E and F deployed
as skirmishers, and I and D, forming the advance
guard. Advancing a few hundred yards through the
woods, we met the enemy's pickets, when a brisk skir-
mish commenced, the enemy falling gradually back,
first to his main reserve, and then to his battle line,
which was established in a strong and commanding
position beyond a deep and almost impassable ravine.
Forcing our way across the ravine and gaining the
high ground beyond, two battalions were immediately
dismounted and engaged the enemy. The First New
Jersey Cavalry, and one piece of artillery, coming up
soon after, our line was advanced, and the enemy forced
back to his second line of defence ; but it not being
the object on our part to bring on a general engage-
ment, no more of the brigade was brought forward;
and after several hours' hard skirmishing, by which
the strength and position of the enemy were fully
ascertained, we were withdrawn. Rejoining the
brigade again at five, P. M , at the point we had
left in the morning, we were ordered to the support
of the Second Brigade, which had become engaged on
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 101
the plank road, near Warwick swamp, but on report-
ing, our services not being required, w^e returned to
the brigade and encamped for the night. Next morn-
ing, the 13th, removed three miles to the left of the
plank road and encamped. On the 14th the regiment
was sent back to the plank road to picket, and during
the night following was considerably annnoyed by the
enemy, the outpost s^being several times attacked and
driven in. Relieved at noon of the 15th we returned
to camp, and on the 16th marched with the division
back to Light House Point, and established camp
near our former ground.
(Notes furnished "by Assistant-Surgeon L. E. Atkinson.)
BATTLES OF MALVERN HILL AND LEE'S MILLS.
'^ After remaining in camp here ten days, engaged
in light picket duty, the cavalry corps, on the after-
noon of July 26th, received marching orders, and the
First Pennsylvania left its camp at five, P. M., two
hundred and twenty men strong, under command
of Lieutenant-Colonel D. Gardner, Colonel Taylor
having received a sick leave for twenty days. The
sick were left in camp together with all dismounted
men. By dark the regiment w^as fairly started on the
march, and with the exception of a halt on the banks
of the Appomattox at midnight, marched constantly
all night. The Appomattox was crossed on a pon-
toon bridge, near Point of Rocks, and the column
was headed tow^ard the James, reaching that river
about four miles above Bermuda Hundred at three,
" The Second Corps had preceded the cavalry, and
108 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
was now crossing the river on a pontoon bridge. By
seven, A. M., it had all crossed, and the advance was
already engaged with the enemy. The cavalry imme-
diately followed, and after crossing, formed on the
right of the Second Corps, with artillery in position,
and every thing indicating that a battle was antici-
pated and prepared for. About noon General Grant
rode along the lines. The entire day was spent in
position, the enemy apparently indisposed to make
an attack, and our lines not advancing. In the even-
ing orders came to make ourselves comfortable for
the night. At three, A. M., on the 28th, camp was
aroused and breakfast cooked, and at daylight we
advanced on the Richmond side of Malvern Hill.
Our brigade had the advance of the corps. About
nine,, A. M., we encountered the enemy's infanty
advancing, and a battle at once ensued. Tlie First
Pennsylvania was quickly dismounted and advanced
in battle line across a wide field to a forest on the
other side. 'They had no sooner gained the forest
than they were furiously attacked by a division of
rebel infantry, and after a sharp action of about
thirty minutes, and being entirely unsupported, were
reluctantly compelled to retire. In this action three
officers were wounded, three men killed, and fifteen
''The rebels, after at first gaining an advantage,
quickly retired, leaving their dead and severely
wounded on the .field*, of the latter there was a very
large number, more than equa%g our entire loss.
'' The cavalry having been relieved by the Second
Corps, retired to the river, and our brigade havino-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 109
remained until night, re-crossed the river and left the
horses on the south side. At nine, A. M., onthe 29th,
the regiment again crossed to the north side of the
James, and threw up rifle pits in front of the brigade,
our line now being a prolongation of the line of the
Second Corps, we occupying nearly the same position
held by us on the 21th,
"Wq remained in this until about twelve, P. M.,
when we returned to the south side of the James, and
mounting, immediately took up the line of march fot
our old position in front of Petersburg. We reached
the Appomattox about daybreak, and the men here,
had time to cook breakfast.
''The river was then re-crossed on a pontoon
bridge at Point of Rocks, as before, and the head of
the column took the direction of the Petersburg and
Weldon Railroad, and by two, P. M., had gone several
miles to the left of the main army, in front of Peters-
burg. At this time the advance of our brigade had
encountered the enemy's cavalry, strongly posted at
Lee's Mills. After a sharp fight the enemy was dis-
lodged, and precipitately retreated. The First Penn-
sylvania was in support of the battery and sustained
no loss. Captain Williams' battalion was placed on
picket in the front, in the evening, and remained until
one, A. M., when it was relieved by a portix)n of the
first division, and the regiment marched back about
four miles toward James river and encamped.
'' Between the period of leaving Light House Point
and of going into camp at this place, the regiment
marched five consecutive nights, and was engaged in
the most arduous duty during the whole time. Con-
110 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
tinued picketing here until the 9th, when we returned
to camp at Light House Point. Again on picket on
(Notes furnished by Chaplain J. H. Beale.)
AGAIN NORTH OF THE JAMES AND BACK TO REAM'S
'' Saturday morning at six o'clock, the regiment, after
a night in the saddle, came in from picket to camp, at
Prince George Court House, with orders to be ''ready
to move at four o'clock, P. M." The day w^as spent in
busy preparation for the morn. Many were the specu-
lations as to the destiny of the expedition, as ''each
breeze that swept from the north brought to our ears
the clash of resounding arms." Man}^ entertained the
agreeable idea that we were about to be shipped to
Washington. However, at five, P. M., the column
moved off on the road leading toward the river. Colonel
Taylor being absent on sick leave, and Lieutenant-
colonel Gardner being unwell, the regiment was com-
manded by Captain Newman, and took its position
for the day second in 'order of march.' As the
column left the main road and wended its way across
the ^^ Appomattox, ^^ we well understood what was be-
fore us. A week's hard service of picketing, scouting,
and the engagement of Gravel Hill, July 28, 1864,
told us plainly what was before us. Consoling our-
selves with the idea that what had been endured once
could be borne again, we travelled on, and four
A. M., on Sunday morning, found us on the north
side of the James river about three miles below Deep
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. Ill
Bottom, where the Tenth Corps was already engaging
the enemj^, after a night's march as disagreeable as
any in the history of the regiment, occasioned by
intense heat and dust, which in tKe absence of any
breeze, settled in almost impenetrable density along
the entire line of march.''
'^Sunday, August 14th, eight, A. M., General
Gregg's division of cavalry took position on the right
wing of the Second Corps. The First Pennsylvania
Reserve Cavalry took the advance of the division on
the road leading to ' Gravel Hill, ^ twin-sister to ' Mal-
vern Hill,' overlooking an extensive and fertile plain
between it and 'the James.' Our advance guard
drove in the enemy's vedettes half a mile before we
reached 'the Hill. Rushing on rapidly, the advance
battalion, companies (A, C, G and H) commanded by
Captain Confer, charged the height, where the enemy
were strongly intrenched. But the charge was so
rapid and determined that the enemy were completely
routed, thus we gained their first line of works before
a regiment of infantry, which they had in reserve,
could come to their assistance. We continued to
drive them half a mile further, when other regiments
of the brigade came up, and, taking tlie advance, con-
tinued to drive them still further, when night put an
end to fighting. In this engagement we had five (5)
men wounded. At night the Second Brigade came
up, and relieved the First - Brigade, which lay in
reserve during the night."
'' Monday morning, the Second Brigade advanced
and pressed the enemy back through a dense wood,
while the First Pennsylvania supported the battery.
112 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
(There being but one battery to the division.)* Tues-
day morning, the First Brigade moved out about two
miles, on the Charles City Court House road, and
took position on the right of the Second Brigade.
Here the regiment remained on the out-post dis-
mounted behind a strong line of works the enemy had
thrown up w^hen Grant made his passage across the
James, until near night, when the Second Brigade
was forced back, and we were compelled to contract
our line, whereupon the Second Brigade had a severe
fight ; and the First Brigade relieved them at sunset,
and re-established the same line held during the
morning. The regiment remained saddled during the
night. At two A. M., Wednesday morning, all hands
must 'stand to horse,' in anticipation of a morning
attack. Wednesday was spent in the same position,
every man on duty until six P. M. The enemy by a
flank movement compelled us again to abandon our
position. But not until the regiment barely escaped
being cut off, saved only by the length of the regiment
in 'column of route.' The encircling flank of the
enemy switching the rear of our regiment as it passed.
Another night and the regiment again ' stands to horse'
all night, and »o remained until two P. M., we un-
saddled for the first time since Tuesday morning.
But we had scarcely obeyed orders to 'go into camp'
when another order came, 'Be ready to move at five
P. M.' Just as night was settling upon us a foaming
rain doing the same, we recrossed the James with
orders to report to army headquarters. Another all
night of it. Thus passed the week of hard duty, iu
which we added to. our roll of honor ' Gravel Hill,
No. 2. AuQ'ust 14. 1864."
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 113
SKIRMISHING NEAR REAM'S STATION.
At dayligiit on the 20tli, the division left army head-
quarters, and moved forward to the Gurley House,
drew up in battle-line, and remained in that position
until dark, when a portion of the command was placed
on picket, and the balance permitted to go into camp.
Sunday 21st, the command in the saddle at early
dawn, and advancing toward the Weldon Eailroad.
Reaching the road, the enemy were found in force a
short distance beyond it, and heavy skirmishing im-
mediately commenced and kept up during the entire
day. The 22d and 23d were spent by the brigade in
picketing beyond the railroad, with occasionally a
slight skirmish. At dark, however, of the 23d, our
brigade was relieved by infantry, and sent to the
support of the second brigade, which was stationed
along the Dinwiddle Court House road, and was then
being heavily pressed by the enemy. Reinforced by
our brigade, the division, after a sharp fight of an hour,
succeeded in driving the enemj^ and retaining posses-
sion of the road. The 24th and 25th, until four P. M.,
passed without any hostile demonstrations by the
enemy. But at this time he made another general
assault, a last desperate effort to retake the road.
Assailed in front and at the same time heavily
attacked on the flank our infantry was at first com-
pelled to retire, and suffered considerable loss, but,
rallying, prevented the enemy from gaining any per-
manent advantage. The cavalry being stationed on
the flanks was also hotly engaged. The First Brigade
occupied a position on the right of the Second Corps
114 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
and between it and the Fifth Corps, and the Second
Brigade on the left of the Second Corps. The cavalry
fought dismounted, as the marshy nature of the
ground prevented the use of horses, and nobly sus-
tained its enviable reputation. The regiment, although
stationed on one of the most exposed portions of the
line, fortunately escaped with but slight loss.
Withdrew on the 26th, some tw^o miles to the rear,
and were engaged in changing position from place to
place along the railroad until the 29th when we esta-
blished camp on the Jerusalem Plank road, near the
left of the army.
On the 30th, the long and anxiously looked for
order to report in the State of Pennsylvania to be
mustered out was received. The 31st was spent in
mustering for pay, and organizing the veterans and
recruits, four hundred and one in number, into com-
panies. They were formed into four companies, D,
officered by Captain H. A. McDonald, Lieutenants
H. Piatt and J. W. Nelson ; F by Captain J. H.
Williams and Lieutenants Holbrook and Forsyth ; L
by Captain T. C. McGregor and Lieutenants Lebo
and McDonald, and M by Captain H. S. Thomas,
Lieutenants Morgan and Herrick. The whole com-
posing the First Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry Bat-
talion and commanded by Major B. J. Falls.
Thursday, September 1st, the old members of the
regiment, whose times had expired, took a farewell
leave of the battalion remaining, and quitting the
front, marched to City Point. After a necessary
delay of two days employed in turning over quarter-
master's and ordnance stores, the regiment was em-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 115
barked on the steamer Cla3^mount, and shipped via
Fortress Monroe, Chesapeake and Delaware Canal to
Philadelphia, wl^re we landed on Monday the 5th,
and were mustered out and discharged on Friday
SYNOPSIS OF OPERATIONS IN THE CAMPAIGN OF 1864.
The brilliant operations of the cavalry in the cam-
paign of 1864, against Richmond, will form a page in
the chronicles of this great rebellion, not unworthy
of a place side by side with the gallant achievements
of the infantry and artillery, and the pen of the his-
torian will record alike, in the same glowing charac-
ters, the heroic deeds of each arm of the service, as
well as of the divisions, batteries and squadrons
whose honor it. is to share the fame of the grand old
Army of the Potomac.
The efficiency given to the cavalry by collecting,
organizing and forming it into a separate and inde-
pendent body during the winter and spring of 1863,
w^as fully attested by its operations in the campaign
of the following summer and fall.
At Kelly's Ford, in March of 1863, the enemy first
learned the concentrated prowess of the Yankee sabre,
and again in June following at Brandy Station and
Aldie, and in July at Hanover Junction, Gettj^sburg?
and Shepherdstown. The reverses he met with in
every instance where his cavalry was pitted in battle
against our gallant squadrons, taught him that his
boasted legions of chivalrous cavaliers could no
longer cope with the dashing valor of the Yankee
horse ; and from this time until winter closed the
116 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT.
operations of the year, he risked no more engage-
ments singly and. alone.; but, as at Culpepper,
Kapidann, Auburn, and New Hope Church, only
fought when heavily supported by infantry. So that
when the work of the year was finished and we
returned to winter quarters, it was with the satisfac-
tion that so far as the cavalry arm of the enemy's
power was concerned in sustaining the rebellion, it
was completely broken and demoralized.
During the winter, however, reports reached us
that every effort was being 'made to recruit and
strengthen his shattered battalions, and with such
success too, as to promise a force of cavalry at the
commencement of hostilities in the spring, equal if
not superior to^ our own.
But the victories which have crowned the arms of
Sheridan's Cavalry Corps in every instance where
numbers placed the contending parties on even an
approximate equality, during the four months of
brilliant and continuous service since the crossing
of the Rapidann, have again fully demonstrated our
superiority, and even at this period of the season,
when the j^ear's operations are scarcely half finished
have so broken his battalions and demoralized his
troopers, that he dares not now meet us unaided by
The unfavorable circumstances under which the
operations of the regiment since the commencement
of the present campaign have been sketched, being
almost constantly on the march, have compelled the
greatest brevity to be exercised, yet its services have
been, if possible, more arduous, and its fighting, as
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. lit
the list of casualties will show, more desperate than
during any previous period of its history.
The Cavalry Corps, headed by that gallant and
dashing leader, Major-General P. H. Seridan, crossed
the Rapidann as the advance-guard of the army,
pushed forward through the Wilderness, and traced
the lines along which our massed corps of infantry
deployed their columns and fought that series of ter-
rible battles which first taught vaunting rebeldom
that the fastnesses of the Rapidann could bQ flanked,
that the Army of jSTorthern Virginia could be de-
feated on its own ground, and its commander out-
generaled by his own tactics. Meeting and defeating
in two general engagements at Todd's Tavern, the
enemy's whole cavalry force, our corps then took up
its march around the flank and rear of the rebel
army and moved straight forward toward his capital.
Fighting the enemy in front, on both flanks and in
rear at the same time, yet moving steadily on, its
columns penetrated the outer defences of Richmond,
and for half a da}^ our cannon thundered their hoarse
notes in the ears of her citizens, then coolly marching
around her northern border encamped on the James
Two days rest, and then returning to the army,
headed the grand flank movement which brought our
army from the front of Lee's frowning entrenchments
at Hanover Court House to his flank and rear at Cold
Harbor; and by the successes of Haws' Shop, Cold
Harbor, and Barker's Mills, traced again for the
army its battle-lines until they reached the Chicka-
118 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Quitting the army again as soon as our services
were not further needed, our columns were headed
for the heart of Virginia ; and at Trevillian, after a
week's exhausting marches, we again met the enemy
in two days' battle. Accomplishing our object here,
and then returning by a winding and circuitous
route, met the enemy at White House and St. Mary's
Church on the 21st and 24th of the same month.
Crossing the James river, and after a fortnight of
hard service, fought a severe engagement at Ream's
Station, then back across the James, were heavily
engaged again at Malvern Hill on the 28th, and
returning on the 31st, closed the month with a fight
at Lee's Mill, on the extreme left of the army.
Ten days of August were also spent north of the
James wdth the Second Corps, and then back again
to the Weldon Railroad, ended the month and the term
of service of the regiment, with a series of severe skir-
mishes in that vicinity.
Headqnarters, First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry,
Near Weldon Eailroad, August 31st, 186i.
(General Order ^ No. 18.)
Officers and Soldiers of the First Pennsylva-
nia Reserve Cavalry : — You have now experienced
three years of terrible, devastating war ; you are
familiar with its toils, its hardships and its scenes
of bloodshed. During this time there has been no
toil that your manly efforts have not overcome ; no
hardships that you have not courted for jovlT coun-
try's sake; no field of strife too terrible to prevent
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 119
you flaunting yom banner in the face of your trai-
torous foes, and in every instance have you borne it
off in triumph. Many have been the fields upon
which you have distinguished yourselves by your
personal valor. From your first victorious blood
spilt at Drainesville down to that more green in your
memory, such as Todd's Tavern, Childsburg, Ilaws^
Shop, Barker's Mill, White House, St. Mary's Church,
and last, but not least, upon the bloody summit of
Malvern Hill, are still sounding in your ears and
eternally engraven upon your hearts.
But you have now reached the goal of your worthy
ambition; you have won for yourselves, your regi-
ment, and your State, an invidious reputation.
OflScers and soldiers of the First Pennsylvania
Eeserve Cavalry, allow me, on this the eve of our
separation, to express to you my heartfelt thanks
for your implicit confidence and ready compliance
with every order and unflinching bravery upon every
field I have had the honor to lead you. Your mili-
tary career has been a brave and clear record, in
which you have acquitted yourselves like men.
But the war is not ended yet. There are more
battles yet to be fought, and more lives to be offered
up on the altar of liberty. For this end some of you
remain and many more of you will soon be back to
battle in this your just and holy cause. But when-
ever you may answer to the " bugle's call," and upon
whatever field you may strike the black shield of
rebeldom, let the memory of your fallen comrades
strengthen your arms and encourage your hearts,
ever mindful that you were once members* of the
120 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry. May the God
of battles and of mercy be yonr shield and protection.
By order of
J. P. TAYLOR,
Colonel Commanding Regiment.
W. P. Lloyd,
Adjutant First Penna. Beserve Cavalry.
ADDRESS OF COLONEL J. P. TAYLOR.
After the above order was read to the regiment,
which had been formed by Lieutenant-colonel Gard-
ner, Colonel Taylor made the following remarks : —
My Brave Comrades :— We stand to-day upon the
threshold of an event, which, when, we left our homes
three years ago, the most prophetic heart scarcely
dared anticipate the scenes then rife in our midst.
Such as the memory of an insulted flag upon Fort
Sumter, which cast a gloom of shame over every true
American heart, and the blood of brothers spilt in
the streets of Baltimore, as it were, sprinkled over
every loyal heart in the North. The rushing of men
to arms, and our souls inspired by the spirit of our
fathers, nerved us to action, and from homes of com-
fort, luxury and ease we rallied in defence of our
Another turn of the kaleidescope found us mar-
shalled beneath the proud ensign of our glorious Re-
public. No longer separate and distinct in thought and
action, but the firm resolve of the farmer, the willing
hand of the laborer and mechanic, the shrewd energy
of the merchant, the potent influence of the student.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRr. 121
all suddenly converted into the trained and disciplined
soldier, with hearts that beat as one. What you were
then, and what you have since proven yourselves, you
owe to the mighty impulses of your first great and
noble commander Colonel George D. Bayard ; imbued
with the influence of his mighty genius, you saw the
star of his glory rising and shining brighter and
brighter in the military sphere, and alas, too, to set
before it had reached its zenith. Following in his
wake, ever ready to stand by you in the hour of
danger, to share with you your toils and hardships, to
cheer you on in the hour of conflict, following strictly
in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor, the
champion of your rights and reputation came your
second Colonel — Owen Jones.
OflScers and Soldiers— through your esteem I
had the honor to be your next commander, and as
such I deem it an high honor to-day to stand before
the shattered remnant of what was once a large regi-
ment. To thank you for your esteem and the willing-
ness with which you have acceded to my every request,
and complied with my every command, and for the
manner you have "so nobly and faithfully discharged
your duties as soldiers. I believe I am the only officer
now left of those who were assembled at the call of
the Governor, and witnessed the organization of the
regiment in the presence of his staff, and heard it
christened the First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry ;
and it gives me pleasure to-day, to think we can re-
turn to our native State, those colors entrusted to our
care, tattered and torn thougli they be, without a
tarnish or a stain upon the rei)utation of the regiment.
122 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Officers and Soldiers of the First Pennsjdvania Re-
serve Cay airy, you are the veterans of more than
thirty engagements, your banner has proudly floated
over almost 'every field on which this historic army
has been engaged ; the graves of your comrades are
strewn from Gettysburg to the river James ; your
war-path may be traced by the blood of your fallen
heroes ; but by the strength of justice and the might
of mercy you have plumed your arms with honor and
Enlisted veterans : — When you were re-enlisting
my lips were sealed from encouraging you, because
circumstances unavoidable, rendered my remaining
with you impossible ; let not our leaving discourage
you, but go on to greater deeds of valor ;• be faithful,
be obedient, be prompt and cheerful in duty as you
always have been, a hopeful country awaits to crown
you ; and we shall not forget jou ; we shall continue
to breathe the desired hope and christian prayer that
you may soon be permitted to return to your homes,
when the red-handed monster, wa?^ — whose pestiferous
breath blasts with withering death every thing lovely
on earth — may be banished from our distracted land,
and peace, sweet peace again returning, shed ever-
more her Heaven -born blessings on our fair Colum-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 123
LETTER FROM BRIGADIER-GENERAL GREGG, ON THE DE-
PARTURE OF THE REGIMENT FROM THE DIVISION FOR
Headquarters, Second Division Cavalry Corps, A. 0. P., )
n T -r^ rx. ^^P*- 1st, 1864. '' I
Colonel J. P. Taylor,
First Fenna, Fes. Cavalry.
My Dear Colonel:— The order discharging from
the United States' service the First Pennsylvania
Cavalry, has been received at these Headquarters.
As you will accompany your regiment to Pennsylvania,
there to be discharged with it, I cannot permit your
departure without expressing to you how much I feel
the separation of yourself and command from the
For nearly two years the First Pennsylvania Re-
serve Cavalry has been under my command, and now,
at the end of its term of service, I can proudly say Us
record is without a blemish.
The excellence of your regiment resulted from the
proper application of discipline by its officers. In
the many engagements of this division, in which your
regiment has participated, many officers and enlisted
men have fallen. They met death facing the foe, let
them be properly remembered by those who survive.
To you. Colonel, my thanks are due, for the effi-
cient manner in which you have always performed
your duty, whether as a regimental or brigade com-
mander. You return to your home well satisfied that
you have failed not in your duty, bearing with you
the sincere friendship of myself and all your com-
panions in arms.
124 HISTORY OE THE FIRST REGIMENT.
With the very best wishes for your health, happi-
ness and success in the future.
I am very truly yours,
D, McM. GKEGG,
Brig, 'Gen. Comd^g Second Gav. Div,
EECOED OF BATTLES,
IN WHICH THE REGIMJ5NT HAS BEEN ENGAGED.
Drainesville, Va., December 20, 1861, advance skir-
mishers and supporting batteries.
Harrisonburg, June 6, 1862, supporting Bucktails.
Cross Keys, June 8, 1862, rear guard and support-
Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862, supporting bat-
tery and skirmishing-— grand charge oJ
first battalion, one hundred and sixteen
men against a division of the enemy.
Gainesville, August 28, 1862, flanking and skirmish-
ing to the front.
Bull Bun, first day, August 29, 1862, advance skir-
mishing and flanking.
Bull Bun, second day, August 30, 1862, flanking.
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, advance skir-
mishing to left grand division.
Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, engaged with Stuart's
Aldie, June 21 and 22, 18^3, Stuart's Cavalry.
Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2 and 3, 1863, stationed in
rear of the left centre.
126 HISTORY OE THE FIRST EEGIMENT.
Shepherdstown, Ya., July 16, 1863 — a force of tire
enemy's infantry; cavalry and artillery.
Culpepper, September 13, 1863 — enemy's cavalry.
Auburn, Dctober 14, 1863 — advance of Lee's army,
infantry, cavalry and artillery.
New Hope Church, December 2*7, 1863 — advance '
of Ewell's Corps, infantry, cavalry and
Todd's Tavern, May 5 and 6, 1864 — against the
enemy's cavalry corps.
Childsburg, May 9, 1864 — enemy's cavalry.
Richmond Heights and Meadow Bridge, May 12,
1864 — artillery, infantry and cavalry.
Haws' Shop, May 28, 1864 — rebel cavalry corps and
Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864, but slightly engaged.
Barker's Mill, June 2, 1864 — enemy's artillery and
Trevilltan Station, June 12, 1864 — cavalry, infantry
White House, June 21, 1864 — cavalry and artillery.
St. Mary's Church, June 24, 1864 — enemy's cavalry
Malvern Hill, July 28, 1864 — division of rebel in-
Lee's Mills, July 31, 1864 — Butler's rebel cavalry.
Gravel Hill, August 14, 1864— cavalry, infantry and
Beam's Station, August 25, 1864 — Hill's rebel corps.
LIST OF SKIEMISHES;
IN WHICH THE REGIMENT HAS BEEN ENGAGED.
Dramesville, November 21, 1861 — guerrillas.
Falmouth, April IT and 18, 1862— infantry and
Gray's Farm, May 10, 1862— infantry pickets along
Strasburg, June 1 ; Woodstock, June 2 ; Edinhurg,
Mt Jackson, June 4; New Market, June 5, 1862 —
engaged with Jackson's rear guard, in-
fantr}^, cavalry and artillery.
Rapidann River, August 3 and 4, 1862— infantry
Robinson River, August 8, 1862 — advance of Jack-
son's army, infantry, cavalry and artillery.
Rappahannock Station, August 20, 1862 — Stuart's
At the several Fords along the Rappahannock, from
the 20th to the 26th, 1862— repulsing the
enemy in attempting to cross — infantry,
cavalrj^ and artillery.
Centreville, September 1, 1862 — flank of Longstreet's
Fairfax Court House, September 2, 1862 — flank of
Middleburg, October 30; Aldie, October 31, 1862—
infantry, cavalry and artillery.
128 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT.
Salem, November 4, 1862 — cavalry.
Warrenton, November 6 — cavalr}^ and artillery.
Rappahannock Bridge, November t, 1862 — cavalry
Fredericksburg, December 12, 1862 — left wing of
Below Port Conway, April 22, 1863, Colonel Taylor
and escort fired on by guerrillas, and three
Companies A and B, as advance for Sixth Corps,
from G.ettj^sburg to Hagerstown, five suc-
Near Haz^el River, August 4, 1863 — cavalry.
3Iuddy River, August 6, 1863 — cavalry.
Carter'' s Creek, September 6, 1863 — picket reserve
attacked by guerrillas. Lieutenant Lyon
and Corporal Barre killed.
Along the Rappahannock, with little intermission,
from September 14 to 20, 1863.
Sulphur Springs, October 12, 1863 — cavalry and
Near Warrenton, November 1*7, 1863 — picket 'reserve
Culpepper Ford, December 2, 1863.
Ashby^s Gap, February 11, 1864 — Moseby's guer-
Charlotteville — while on a raid with General Custar.
Sa/em, March 19, 1864:— Moseby's guerrillas.
Gravel Hill, August 16 and 1*7 — enemy's cavalry.
Ream''s Station, August 21, 22 and 23 — cavalry and
EECOED OF MAECIIES AND SCOUTS,
WITH APPROXIMATE DISTANCES TRAVELED.
August and September, 1861 — in camp, near Washing-
ton, D. C.
October 10, 1861, moved to Langley, Ya.^ a distance
of eight miles.
19, 20 and 21, toward Leesburg, with advance
of McCalPs Division,, the Pennsylvania Re-
serve Corps, and return, thirty-two miles.
Total for October, 40 miles.
November 21, scout to Drainesville and beyond, thirty-
Total for ^N'ovember, 36 miles.
December 20, to Drainesville, twenty-eight miles.
Total, for December, 28 miles.
January, 1862, two scouts beyond Difficult creek,
twenty miles each.
Total for January, 40 miles.
February, a scout of twenty -five miles.
March 10, marched to Hunter's Mills, fourteen miles.
13, extensive scout toward Leesburg, forty-
13 and .14, to near Alexandria, twenty-five
15, to Falls Church, six miles.
Total for March, 94 miles.
April 9, To Fairfax Court House, ten miles.
130 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
April 10, to Manassas Junction, twenty miles.
11, to Catletts Station, twelve miles.
13 and 14, a scout to Hackett's Mills, near
Safford Court House, twenty-five miles.
1^ and 18 to Falmouth, thirty-five miles.
18 and 1^, Companies Gand H scout to Aquia
Landing, thirty miles.
24 and 25, regiment sent to King George Court
House, fort}^ miles,
march, to camp, below Falmouth, six miles.
Total for April, 178 miles.
May 25, 1862, from six miles below Falmouth — be-
yond the Pamunkey river, toward Rich-
28, return to Fredericksburg, about one hun-
29, by way of Catletts Station to Strasburg,
Total for May, 160 miles.
June 1, Strasburg up the Shenandoah Yalley, reach-
ing Port Eepublic on the 9th, sixty miles.
9, back to Mt. Jackson, to Strasburg, reaching
Manassas on the 23d.
Total for June, 155 miles.
July 4, marched to Warrenton Junction and famous
scouts to the llappahannock by portions
of the regiment, ninety miles.
1 6, to Culpepper, twenty-five miles.
It, to Ragged Mountain fifteen miles, and
scouting while there, forty-five miles.
22, returned to Culpepper, fifteen miles.
Total for July, 115 miles.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 131
August 1, marched to Eapidann, fourteen miles.
Scouting by detachments for six dh^yU, one
8, to Cedar Mountain, eight miles.
20, to Rappahannock Station, twentj^ miles.
21, by a circuitous route, with numerous coun-
termarches to Centreviile, seventy miles.
Total for August, 212 miles.
September 1, to Alexandria, twenty -five miles.
3, to Bailey's Cross Roads, six miles.
26, detachment of fiye companies to Centreviile,
employed for four weeks iji scouting Ma-
nassas plains, two hundrec^'and fifty miles.
Total for September, 281. miles.
October 10, scout to Bealton Station and return, one
2*7 and 28, to Chantilly, twenty miles.
30, to Aldie, thirty miles.
Total for October, 150 miles.
November 1, return to Chantilly, twenty-five miles.
3, 4 and 5, to Upperville, thirty-seven miles.
6, by a circuitous route to Warrenton, twenty-
t, to Rappahannock Bridge, twelve miles.
20, 21 and 22, to Brook's Station, thirty-eight
Total for November, 16T miles.
December 10, marched to Falmouth, ten miles.
14, to Lamb's Creek Church, ten miles.
28, to Bell Plain Landing, fourteen miles.
Total for December, 34 miles.
132 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
January 2, 1863, to picket at Lamb's Creek Church,
5, return to Bell Plain Landing, ten miles.
8, to picket and return, twenty miles.
1^, to picket and return, twenty miles.
21 to 23, Burnside's advance, twelve miles.
2t, to picket and return, twenty miles.
Total for January, 92 miles.
February 2, to picket and return the 5th, twenty miles.
14, to picket and return the Itth, twenty miles.
2^, to picket for ten days, ten miles.
Total for February, 50 miles.
March 5, relieved from picket and return to camp, ten
19, to picket and. return on the 19th, twenty
miles ; and scout at night to the neck below,
21, another scout by detachment, forty miles.
Total for March, 110 miles.
April 12, to King George Court House, sixteen miles ;
scouts while on picket, seventy miles.
Total for April, 86 miles.
May 9, march to Potomac C^eek Bridge, thirty miles.
18, to United States Ford, nine miles.
28, to Warrenton Junction, Morrisville and
Bealton Station, thirty-five miles.
Total for May, U miles,
/itne, 1863, moved to Morrisville, fourteen miles.
9, to Brandy Station and returned to Rappa-
hannock Station, eighteen miles.
10, to Warrenton Junction, twelve miles.
13, to Warrenton, niiie miles.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 133
June 15, to Manasas Junction, twenty miles.
16 and 1 Y, to Aldie, twenty miles.
18, to Thoroughfare Gap, eight miles.
21 and 22, to Aldie and Upperville and return,
26, to Leesburg, nine miles.
27, crossed Edwards' Ferry and marched all
night, reaching Frederick city next day.
29, to Middleburg, marching all night.
30, to Taney town ; total from the 2'7th, sixty
Total for June, 202 miles.
July 1, to battle-field of Gettysburg, twelve miles.
5, to Creagarstown, twenty-five miles.
'T, via Frederick city to Middleburg and South
Mountain, twenty-two miles.
9, to Boonsboro', ten miles.
11, to Antietam Creek, five miles.
12, back to Boonsboro', five miles.
14, to Harper's Ferry, twenty-seven miles.
15, to Shepherdstown, Ya., and return the night
of the 16th to Harper's Ferry, eighteen
19, crossed the Shenandoah river east, six
20, to Perry ville, ten miles.
21, to Hillsboro', four miles.
23, to Ashby's Gap, tw'enty miles.
26, move through Upperville to Middleburg,
2*7, through White Plains to Warrenton, twenty
134 HISTORY OF THE EIRST REGIMENT
July 28, to Warrenton Junction, nine miles.
29, to Warrenton, nine miles.
30, to Amisville, south of Rappahannock, fif-
Total for July, 232 miles.
August 4, scout toward Culpepper, sixteen miles.
5, scout toward Culpepper, sixteen miles.
8, return to Sulphur Springs and on picket,
15, to Warrenton, six miles.
18, scout by detachment to Salem and returned,
19, scout to Gainesville and return, forty miles.
24, crossed the Rappahannock to Jefferson on
picket and returned on 2Tth, eighteen miles.
Total for August, 112 miles.
September 4, on picket at Carter's Creek, eight miles.
t, return to camp, eight miles.
10 and 11; scout to Middleburg and return,
12, to Jeiferson, eight miles.
13, through Culpepper to Cedar Mountain,
twenty -seven miles.
14, to the Rapidann, five miles.
18, return to Culpepper, eleven miles.
22, to the Rapidann, eight miles.
25, to Culpepper, eight miles.
26, moved back to Catletts Station, seventeen
miles ; scouting while here, 50 miles.
Total for September, 205 miles.
October 3, to United States Ford, a circuitous route,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 135
October 11, to Rappahannock Station, twenty-five
13, to Auburn ,*ten miles.
14, to Brentsville, ten miles.
15, crossed and re-crossed Bull Run, twenty
miles ; picket and scout along Bull Run,
21, move to Oainesville, twelve miles.
22, to W^rrenton, twelve miles.
Total for October, 149 miles.
November 6, move to Bealton Station, twelve miles.
9, to Fayetteville, nine miles.
21, pursuit of Moseby, thirty miles.
23, marched to Bealton Station, nine miles.
24, beyond the Rappahannock, eighteen miles.
26, cross the Rapidann and in the direction of
Orange Court House, twenty-five miles.
27, to battle-field of New Hope Church and
return to Parker's Store, twenty-five miles.
28, to Wilderness Tavern and return to Par-
ker's Store on 30th, fifteen miles.
Total for November, 143 miles.
December 1, to Wilderness Tavern, seven miles.
2, re-crossed the Rapidann, fourteen miles.
6, to Brandy Station, twelve miles.
10 and 11, to Warrenton for winter quarters,
25, scout by detachment to Salem and return,
Total for December, 73 miles.
January 1, 1864, to Front Royal and return on the
4th, seventy miles.
136 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
January 8, to Salem and return, eighteen miles.
Total for January, 88 miles.
February IT, scout to, Ashby 'strap and return, sixty
21, to Charlotteville and return, seventy-eight
Total for February, 138 miles.
March T, to New Baltimore and return, ten miles.
8, to Sulphur Springs and return, ten miles ;
various scouts during the month, one hun-
dred and thirty miles.
Total for March, 150 miles.
April 21, to Turkey Run, six miles.
24, to Morrisville, eighteen miles.
Total for April 24 miles.
May 3, to Eichardsville, eighteen miles,
4, to Pine Creek, ten miles.
5 to 8, marching and counter-marching, thirty
9 to 14, marched via Fredericksburg, Childs-
burg, North Anna, Beaverdam Station,
South Anna, at Ground Squirrel bridge,
Hungary Station, Brock road. Meadow
bridge, Bottom bridge to James river, at
Haxall's Landing, ninety miles.
11 to 25, via Jordon's bridge, Baltimore Cross
Uoads, Cold Harbor, White House, Ay-
letts. White. Chimneys to Chesterfield
Station, one hundred and ten miles.
26 to June 3, via Pamunky, at Hanovertown,
Haws' Shop, Cold Harbor, marching and
counter-marching to Bottom bridge, sixty
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. ISiT
June 6 to 25, from Bottom bridge via New Castle,
crossing the Pamunky at that place, Ay-
letts, Pole Cat Station, crossed North East
river and North Anna River to Trevillian
Station, and returned via the Catharpen
road, Spottsylvania Court House, Guinea
Station, Bowling Green, Newtown, Clarks-
ville, Walkertown, King and Queen Court
House, and returned to Clarksville, crossed
Matapony river at Dunkirk, and again via
Ayletts, King William Court House to
White House, and then to James river at
Wyandott's Landing, one hundred and
21 of June to 4th of July, 20 miles.
July 11 to 16, to Jerusalem Plank road, Reams Sta-
tion and return, forty-eight miles.
25 to August 8, crossing the James river to
Malvern Hill and return via Reams Sta-
tion to Light House Point, fifty-eight
11 to 13, to Jerusalem Plank road and return,
From night .of 13th to September 1, across
the James river, back to army headquar-
ters, to Weldon Railroad and return to
City Point, sixty-five miles.
Total from May to September, G12 miles.
Total for 1861, 112 miles.
Total for 1862, 1631 miles.
Total for 1863, 1528 miles.
Total for 1864, 1068 miles.
Sum total for three years 4339 miles
By the law of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps,
company officers were elected by the men of their re-
spective companies, and the commanding and field
officers were elected by the commissioned officers of
the regiment. This mode of choosing has not been
productive of so many evil results in this regiment as
in many others, but it is plainly evident from expe-
rience, that a faithful performance of duty is incom-
patible with attempts to secure popularity among his
subordinates, on the part of either commissioned or
non-commissioned officers, who are seeking promotion
by the votes of those under their command ; conse-
quently those who have best filled subordinate posts,
are least likely to secure promotion by election. This
system was annulled by aa Act of Legislature, early
in 1863, and since then the Ogicers have been appointed
in the manner presented by the military laws of the
State of Pennsylvania.
George D. Bayard, commissioned August 1, 1861 ;
appointed brigadier-general. May 5, 1862. Killed at
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862.
Owen Jones, commissioned May 5, 1862, and re-
signed January 30, 1863,
J. P. Taylor, commissioned January 30, 1863 ; com-
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 139
manding First Brigade, Second Cavalry Division,
since October 8, 1863.
Jacob Higgins, commissioned August 1, 1861, and
resigned October 8, 1861.
Owen Jones, commissioned October, 1861. Pro-
moted to colonel.
S. D. Barrows, commissioned May 5, 1862. Re-
signed for disability, September, 1862.
J. P. Taylor, commissioned September, 1862. Pro-
moted to colonel.
David Gardner, commissioned February 10, 1863.
Commanding regiment since October, 1863, and part
of the time, brigade.
Owen Jones, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to lieutenant-colonel
S. D. Barrows, commissioned October, 1861. Pro-
moted to lieutenant-colonel.
B. J. Falls, commissioned January 3, 1862. Wound-
ed July 28, 1864; transferred to First Pennsylvania
Yeteran Cavalry Battalion.
Thomas J. Richards, commissioned May 5, 1^862,
and resigned for disability.
J. H. Ray, commissioned May 5, 1862, and resigned
for disability, February 23, 1§63.
Wm. T. McEwen, commissioned February 23, 1863,
and resigned for disability October IT, 1863. Wounded
at Brandy Station, June 9, 1863.
David Gardner, commissioned November 23, 1862.
Promoted to lieutenant-colonel.
140 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
James M. Gaston, commissioned February 12, 1863.
On detached service at headquarters, Second Cavalry
Division, since June, 1863.
Charles C. Townsend, commissioned November 22,
1862, and resigned for disability June 14, 1863.
Wm. P. Lloyd, commissioned June 16, 1863.
R. R. Corson, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to brigade quarter master.
George H. Baker, commissioned May 5, 1862.
Assistant Commissaries of Subsistence.
Wm. Stadelman, commissioned November 22, 1862,
and resigned for disability, January 28, 1863.
Henry A. Wood, commissioned January 28, 1863.
David Stanton, commissioned August, -1861, and
promoted to the regular army, November 24, 1862.
G. B. Hotchkin, commissioned November 24, 1862.
Acting surgeon-in-chief of First Brigade, Second Cav-
alry Division, greater part of the last year.
Samuel Alexander, commissioned August, 1861 , and
was killed in a skirmish at Drainesville, Virginia, No-
vember 21, 1861.
G. B. Hotchkin, commissioned November 2T, 1861.
Promoted to surgeon.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 141
L. E. Atkinson, commissioned January 21, 1863.
H. ]Sr. Kelly, commissioned December, 1862. Re-
signed for disability.
R. H.^Tuft, commissioned July 29, 1863.
J. B. Finney, commissioned August, 1861. "Resigned
S. W. H. Calver, commissioned June, 1862. Re-
signed August 2, 1862.
J. Hervey Beale, commissioned September 16, 1861.
C. L. Buffington, commissioned March 1, 1862 ; and
mustered out of service, in pursuance of an Act of
Congress, annulling the office, September, 1862.
Wm. S. Foster, commissioned March 1, 1862 ; and
mustered out of service, in pursuance of an Act of
Congress, annulling the office, September, 1862.
Job H. Cole, commissioned March 1, 1862 ; and
mustered out of service, in pursuance of an Act of
Congress, annulling the office, September, 1862.
LINE OFFICERS. — A COMPANY.
John K. Robinson, commissioned July 29, 1861,
and resigned March 28, 1862.
Thomas J. Frow, commissioned March 28, 1862, and
resigned March 14, 1863.
Wm. H. Patterson, commissioned March 28, 1863.
Thomas J. Frow, commissioned July 29, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
142 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Wm. H. Pattejrson, commissioned March 28, 1862.
Promoted to captain.
James R. Kelly, commissioned March 8, 1863.
Wounded July 11, 1863. .Prisoner June 24, 1864.
Wm. H. Patterson, commissioned July 29, 1861.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
James R. Kelly, commissioned March 28, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
D. H. Wilson, commissioned March 28,1863. Killed
June 2, 1864.
Jacob Stadelman, commissioned August 8, 1861.
Resigned March 26, 1862.
Joseph C. Roberts, commissioned March 26, 1862.
Resigned May 8, 1862.
Wm. Litzenberg, commissioned May 8, 1862.
Wounded July 28, 1864.
Theodore Streck, commissioned August 8, 1861.
Promoted to captain. Company H, November 26, 1861 ;
wounded February, 1862.
John Kline, commissioned November 25, 1861. Re-
signed December 30, 1861.
Joseph C. Roberts, commissioned January 1, 1862.
Promoted to captain.
William Buzby, commissioned March 26, 1862.
Died March, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA KESERVE CAVALRY. 143
John Kline, commissioned August 8, 1861. Pro-
moted to first lieutenant.
Joseph C. Roberts, commissioned November 25,
1861. Promoted to first lieutenant.
William Buzby, commissioned January 3, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Robert S. Lawsha, commissioned March 26, 1862.
Wounded May 28, 1864. Promoted to first lieutenant.
J. P. Taylor, commissioned August 6, 1861. Pro-
moted to lieutenant-colonel.
William T. McEwen, commissioned October, 1862.
Promoted to major.
R. J. McMtt, commissioned February 13, 1863.
Prisoner June 21, 1864.
William Mann, commissioned August, 1861. Re-
signed February 26, 1862.
William T. McEwen, commissioned February 26,
1862. Promoted captain.
R. J. McMtt, commissioned October, 1862. Pro-
moted to captain.
Hiram McClenahen, commissioned February 12,
1863. Wounded July IT, 1863; absent on recruiting
service since August, 1863.
William T. McEwen, commissioned August, 1861.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
144 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
R. J. McNitt, commissioned February 26, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
John W. Nelson, commissioned October, 1862.
Transferred to First Pennsylvania Yeteran Cavalry
Battalion, September 1, 1864.
J. W. Smith, commissioned August, 1 861. Resigned
William S. Gile, commissioned September 20, 1861.
Resigned June 24, 1862.
Hugh A. McDonald, commissioned July 1, 1862, was
wounded in three different places in the battle of Cedar
Mountain, August 9, 1862.
S. D. Barrows, commissioned August 1, 1861. Pro-
moted to major.
Warren L. Holbrook, commissioned July 1, 1862;
transferred to First Pennsylvania Yeteran Cavalry
Battalion, September 1, 1864.
M. L. French, commissioned November 15, 1862.
Promoted to Captain of Company E.
William F. Butcher, commissioned July 1, 1862 ;
killed in action at Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862.
Philip H. Walker, commissioned September 9, 1862.
Resigned for disability February 23, 1864, S. 0. No. 52.
A. R. McDonald, promoted July, 1864; veteran
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 145
Jonathan Wolf, commissioned August, 1, 1861. Re-
signed JSTovember, 1861.
Robert R. Lipton, commissioned November, 1861.
Resigned April, 1862.
Jeremiah Newman, commissioned February, 1863.
Robert R. Lipton, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
John A. Bayard, commissioned November, 1861.
Resigned Fely^uary, 1862.
Jeremiah Newman, commissioned April, 1862. Pro-
moted to captain.
William P. Lloyd, commissioned March 22, 1863.
Promoted to adjutant.
Samuel Lipton, commissioned February 10, 1863.
Resigned for disability March 2, 1863.
Johnston C. Akers, commissioned June 16, 1863.
Samuel Murray, commissioned August 1, 1861. Re-
signed December, 1861.
Samuel Deavenport, commissioned December, 1862.
Resigned March, 1862.
Samuel Lipton, commissioned May, 1862. Promoted
to first lieutenant.
Amos M. Herrick, commissioned February 1 1 , 1861.
Transferred to First Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry
Battalion September 1, 1864.
146 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
J. M. Harper, commissioned August 15, 1861. Re-
signed October 19, 1861.
J. H. Ray, commissioned November 15-, 1861. Pro-
moted to major.
Alexander Davidson, commissioned April 1, 1862.
Died of wounds July 31, 1864.
J. H. Ray, commissioned August 15, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
Alexander Davidson, commissioned^ ^N^ovember 15,
1861. Promoted to captain.
Lewis K. Evans, commissioned January 13, 1862.
Resigned June 22, 1862.
Thomas Lucas, commissioned August 1 T, 1862. Re-
ceived a sabre wound from the enemy June 9, 1863.
Promoted to captain.
Alexander Davidson, commissioned August, 1861.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Lewis K. Evans, commissioned November 15, 1861.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Samuel Greenlee, commissioned June 13, 1862
Wounded June 9, 1863, killed May 28, 1864.
Jacob Higgins, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to lieutenant-colonel.
David Gardner, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to major.
PENNSYLVANIA KESERVE CAVALRY. I4t
Henry C. Beamer, commissioned IS'ovember, 1862.
Resigned for disability April 12, 1863.
Francis P. Confer, commissioned April 12, 1863.
David Gardner, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
Hampton S. Thomas, commissioned September,
1861. Promoted to Captain of Company M.
Henry C. Beamer, commissioned April, 1862. Pro-
moted to captain November 24, 1864.
Francis P. Confer, commissioned November 24, 1862.
Promoted to captain.
Alonz6 Reed, commissioned November 24, 1862.
Killed June 24, 1864.
Hiram Piatt, commissioned, August 1, 1864. First
Pennsylvania Yeteran Cavalry Battalion.
Hampton S. Thomas, commissioned August, 1161.
Promoted to first lieutenant
H. C. Weir, commissioned November, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain and A. A. C on General Bayard's staff.
Francis P. Confer, commissioned November, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Alonzo Reed, commissioned November 24, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
George J. Geiser, commissioned April 12, 1863. Dis-
missed, February 11, 1864.
James B. Davidson, commissioned August, 1861.
Resigned September, 1861.
148 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Theodore Streck, commissioned November 24, 1861.
Resigned December, 1862. Wounded May 24, 1862.
William S. Craft, commissioned February 12, 1863.
Wounded May 28, 1864.
David Gilmore, commissioned August, 1861. Re-
signed November, 1861.
John D. Scott, commissioned November 21, 1861.
Dismissed September, 1862.
William S.- Craft, commissioned September 12, 1862.
Promoted to captain.
Thomas C. Labo, commissioned Februaryl2, 1862.
Wounded July 28, 1864 ; transferred to First Penn-
sylvania Veteran Cavalry Battalion, September 1, 1864.
William Brown, commissioned August, 1861. Re-
signed October 8, 1861.
James Jackson, commissioned September, 1861.
Resigned November, 1861.
Thomas C. Lebo, commissioned November, 1861.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Eli C. Forsyth, commissioned February 12, 1863.
W. W. McNulty, commissioned August 13, 1861.
John W Ross, commissioned August 24, 1861. Re-
signed November 22, 1861
George T. Work, commissioned August 23, 1861.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 149
James M. Gaston, commissioned July 12, 1862.
Promoted to major February 10, 1863.
T. C. McGregor, commissioned February 26, 1863.
Transferred to First Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry
Battalion, September 1, 1864.
John W. Ross, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
George T. Work, commissioned August, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
James M. Gaston, commissioned November 23, 1861.
Promoted to captain.
T. C. McGregor, commissoned July 12, 1862. Pro-
moted to captain.
F. S. Morgan, commissioned February 12, 1863.
Transferred to First Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry
Battalion September 1, 1864.
George W. Seigrist, commissioned iS^ovember 23,
1861. Resigned May 10, 1862.
J. B. Richey, commissioned July 12, 1862. Dis-
missed February 18, 1863.
J. M. Gaston, commissioned August 1, 1861. Pro-
moted to first lieutenant.
T. C. McGregor, commissioned May 10, 1862. Pro-
moted to first lieutenant.
George W. Lyon, commissioned Februarj'- 25, 1863.
Killed in action by guerrillas September 6, 18^3.
150 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
William Boyce, commissioned September, 1861. Ee-
signed December IT, 1861.
J. H. Williams, commissioned January 5, 1862. Dis-
missed February 3, 1864; reinstated May, 1864, and
transferred to First Pennsylvania Veteran Cavalry
Battalion September 1, 1864.
William A. Kennedy, commissioned September,
1861. Wounded May 28, 1864.
Samuel W. Morgan, commissioned September, 1861.
Wounded September 15, 1863.
J. C. A. Hoffeditz, commissioned August, 1861.
Resigned April 16, 1862.
Wm. A. Sands, commissioned April 16, 1862. Pris-
oner June 21, 1864.
Wm. A. Sands, commissioned August 1, 1861. Pro-
moted to captain.
H. S. Gaul, commissioned April 16, 1862.
H. S. Gaul, commissioned August, I86L Promoted
to first lieutenant.
Charles Lichten trailer, commissioned April 19, 1862.
Resigned June 26, 1863.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 151
David S. Buxton, commissioned June 26, 1863.
Wounded December 21, 1863 ; mortally wounded and
prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Thomas S. Ricliards, commissioned August, 1861.
Promoted to major.
H. S. Thomas, commissioned May 5, 1862. De-
tached as A. A. Inspector-general First Brigade, since
April, 1863. Transferred to First Pennsylvania
Yeteran Cavalry Battalion.
George D. Leaf, commissioned August, 1861. Re-
signed January, 1863.
Henderson Sample, commissioned February 12, 1863.
Resigned August 12, 1864.
A. S. Shollenberger, commissioned August, 1861.
Henderson Sample, commissioned December 30,
1861. Promoted to first lieutenant.
Joseph S. Wright, commissioned February 12, 1863.
Mortally wounded, June 24, 1864.
George W. Seigrist, appointed September 28, 1861.
Promoted to second lieutenant.
C. L. Buffington, appointed November 23, 1861.
Promoted to battalion adjutant.
152 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Henry C. Beamer, appointed February lY, 1862.
Promoted to first lieutenant.
Wm. McEwen, appointed May 8, 1862. Discharged
for disability, September 29, 1862.
George J. Geiser, appointed September 29, 1862.
Promoted to second lieutenant.
John Hamilton, appointed April 12, 1863.
George H. Baker, appointed September 28, 1861.
Promoted to quartermaster.
Wm. Stadelman, appointed May 5, 1862. Pro-
moted to A. C. S.
George W. Pincher, appointed October 28, 1862.
Yet. vol , February 1, 1864.
Henry A. Wood, appointed June 5, 1862. Pro-
moted to A. C. S.
John McCahan, appointed January 2T, 1863.
Thomas B. Storer, appointed October 16, 1861. Mus-
tered out, in pursuance of an Act of Congress, annull-
ing the office, September, 1862.
James P. Landis, appointed May 1, 1863. Wounded
June 9, 1863. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Joseph Devene}^, appointed September 6, 1861.
C. C. Townsend, appointed September, 1861. • Pro-
moted to adjutant.
Ernest Conzler, appointed October, 1861. Trans-
ferred to regular army November, 1862.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 153
Charles Gardner, appointed October, 1862.
Wm. P. Lloyd, appointed December 18, 1862. Pro-
moted to first lieutenant.
William J. Jackman, appointed March 22, 1863.
Begimental Veterinary Surgeon.
Jacob Woolf, appointed July, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OE A COMPANY, FIRST PENNSYLVANIA
Company A was recruited in Juniatta County,
State of Pennsylvania, September, 1859, by Captain
John H. Patterson, and was called the ^' Juniatta
On the 16th day of April, 1861, the company was
re- organized and recruited by Lieutenant John K.
Robison, and ordered by the Governor of Pennsyl-
vania to be in readiness to report to Harrisburg at
On the 25th day of July, 1861, the company was
reorganized again, by the election of Lieutenant Robi-
son, captain, T. J. Prow, first lieutenant and Wm. H.
Patterson, second lieutenant. On the 26th of the
same month it reported to Harrisburg, and was ac-
cepted, and on the first day of August, 1861, was
mustered into the State service by Colonel Taggart,
for three years.
On the 16th day of August, 1861, it was assigned
to the regiment, and ordered to report to Washington,
D. C, and was mustered into the United States ser-
vice, on the 2tth, at Camp Jones, near Washington,
where it joined the regiment
154 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ENLISTED MEN OF A COMPANY.
John H. Fertig, orderly sergeant. Prisoner June 21,
W. S. Miller, quartei'master sergeant. Wounded at
White House, June 21, 1864.
S. L. Patterson, commissary sergeant.
L. R. Beale, first duty sergeant.
S. S. Wilson, second duty sergeant.
J. T. Funk, third duty sergeant. Wounded June 24,
S. F. Lane, fourth duty sergeant. Transferred to
J. T. Sterret, fifth duty sergeant.
W. A. Patterson, first corporal. Prisoner, June 21,
S. S. Mairs, second corporal. Yet. vol., January 1,
1864. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
D. Snyder, third corporal.
J. Q. Eby, fourth corporal. Prisoner June 21, 1864.
Wm. Bortle, fifth corporal.
Brazee, John M.
Bear, W. A. Wounded at White House, June 21,
Bidler, Henry W.
Brown, W. M.
Birchfield, James M. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Collier, David W.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY- 155
Campbell, IS^oah, bugler. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Doty, John E., corporal Wounded June 24, 1864.
Ernest, Wesley H.
Fink, George. Wounded at Culpepper, September
15, 1863, and wounded July 28, 1864.
Fulton, Wm. S. Wounded in Pennsylvania, July 10,
Horton, Daniel T. Prisoner, April 18, 1863.
Hawler, Israel. Wounded October 1, 1863.
Johns, Mathias, Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Kin sloe, John.
Kennedy, Joseph B. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Longacre, Isaac. Prisoner at Bull Bun, August 30,
Lowden, Alfred M.
Meloy, ^George W. Private Orderly to General
Meade since enlistment.
McDonald, J. B.
McDonald, Anderson H.
McWilliams, Andrew J.
McCoy, John M.
Marly, James B.
McConnel, Henry 0, bugler.' Transferred to the Sig-
nal Corps, March, 1864.
Nicely, Henry. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Mpple, John 0. Wounded June 24, 1864.
156 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Okeson, Samuel B.
Rogers, Matthew H.
Smith, W. H. Killed May 28, 1864, at Haws' Shop, Ya.
Smith, David L.
Smith, William. Sent to Insane Asylum.
Sperry, William Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Wildman, Abraham J. Yet. vol. January 1, 1864.
Wounded June 2, 1864.
Dunn, William. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Slusher, J. K. P.
Logan, Thomas 0.
Howard, Henry. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Robertson, Joseph. Wounded June 24, 1864.
John, Hamilton. Sergeant to sergeant-major, May 1,
John W. Forney. Sergeant to saddler sergeant, No-
vember, 1862. Yet. vol., February J, 1864.
William J. Jackman. Sergeant to hospital steward,
March 22, 1863.
James R. Kelly. Sergeant to second lieutenant, March
D. H. Wilson. Sergeant to second lieutenant, March
John jSTeiman. Culpepper, Ya., September 13, 1863.
Jacob Benson, Disease, September 12, 1861.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 15 1
Isaac Clair. Disability, February, 1863.
John Clair. Disability, March, 1863.
T. W. Dewess. Disability, March 24, 1862.
Smith De Bray. Disability, March 1, 1862.
Joseph R. Kinser. Disability, November 22, 1862.
James McKee. Disability, September 18, 1862.
Samuel M. Mitchell. Disability, May 12, 1862.
Geo. H. McCochron. Disability, May 1, 1862.
Alonzo Morley. Disability, April 1, 1862.
Newton Lane, sergeant. Disability, March, 1863.
W. M. Robinson. Wounded at Cedar Mountain, Au-
gust 9, 1862.
Levi Richer. Disability, January 8, 1862.
Calvin E. Stewart. Disability.
John A. Tomey. Disability, January, 1862.
Amos Wolfgang, corporal. Disability, February, 1863.
Wm. Wagner, corporal. Disability, December, 1862.
Joseph Yocum. Disability, April 1, 1862.
David Holtzhopple, corporal. February, 1863, from
wounds at Bull run, August 30, 1862.
Joseph G. Simpson. Disability, March, 1863.
Samuel Gazette. . Invalid Corps.
Alexander R. Brant. July 25, 1862.
John L. Ernest. September 1, 1861.
Christopher R. Richard.
G. W. Tannyhill. August 18, 1861.
158 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ORGANIZATION OF B COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
B Company was organized at Athensville, Montgo-
mery county, State of Pennsylvania, on or about the
22d day of April, 1861, by the Honorable Owen Jones,
who was unanimously chosen captain. Dr. Joseph
Levering was chosen first lieutenant, and Jacob L.
Stadelman second lieutenant.
On the 5th day of August it was ordered to report
at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, where it arrived the
same day, and encamped in Camp Curtin.
Dr. Joseph H. Levering, having resigned his lieute-
nantcy, previous to the company leaving Athensville,
an election was held for the 'purpose of filling the
vacancy, on the 6th day of August, 1861, when second
lieutenant Jacob L. Stadelman was chosen first lieu-
tenant, and John Kline, second lieutenant.
On the 8th day of August, 1861, the company was
mustered into the State service, by Colonel Taggart,
of the Twelfth regiment Pennsylvania Yolunteer Re-
Captain Owen Jones, having been promoted to the
rank of major, First Lieutenant Jacob L. Stadelman
was elected captain, and Theodore Streck was elected
first lieutenant on the 16th of the same month.
On the same day, the company left Cariip Curtin,
and arrived at Washington, D. C, and encamped at
the Park on Seventh street.
On the 20th day of August it moved to Camp Jones,
and to Camp Reynolds, near Tennallytown on the 18th
of September, 1861.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 159
ENLISTED MEN OF B COMPANY.
John H. Be van, orderly sergeant.
Adolphus S. Eder, first duty sergeant.
Martin Mars, second duty sergeant.
David W. Tarrence, third duty sergeant. Wounded,
May 25, 1863.
Joseph Price, fourth duty sergeant.
Washington F. Chrissman, quartermaster sergeant.
Wounded at Culpepper, September 13, 1863.
David W. Titlow, commissary sergeant.
John R Styer, first corporal. Killed May 28, 1864.
Geo. B. Rambo, second corporal.
Crawford Yocum, third corporal.
Kline A. Graver, fourth corporal.
Wm. H. Ramsey, fifth corporal
Joel L. Davis, sixth corporal.
Mark R. Hagner, seventh corporal.
Henry H. Pyott, eighth corporal.
Bennett, Charles. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Black, John. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Black, Lorenzo D.
Bevan, Allen L.
Bisson, Jacob G.
Council, Patrick. Wounded in Pennsylvania, July 5,
1863, and at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864.
Collins, Edgar W.
Creighton, John J. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
160 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Gregor, Chalkly F.
Hoffman, Thomas P.
Hampton, Wm. S.
Haws, Samuel A. Killed Ma}^ 28, 1864.
Hafner, Mathias ^
Jago, Samuel. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Lowery, Robert. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Levering, Perry H.
Lysle, George L. Sergeant. Yet. vol., February 1,
1864. Killed, July 28, 1864.
McFayne, James J.
Michael, Matthew. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Moore, Lewis. Wounded, July 28, 1864.
Matson, Morris M. Bugler.
Rhoads, Wm. H.
Snyder, Franklin. Bugler.
Smoyer, Edward B.
Soley, Wesley A.
Smith, Isaac W.
Staub, Michael B.
Yocum, John. Killed, May 28, 1864.
Bynn, Geo. W.
Haines, Jacob W.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 161
Grant, John S.
Lutz, Justus W.
Moore, Joseph F. Wounded at Culpepper, Septem-
ber 13, 1863, also, June 2, 1864, at Barker's
Edler, William H Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Mower, Philip A. Mortally wounded, June 2, 1864.
Milesr, John J.
Wm. Buzby. Sergeant to second lieutenant.
Geo. H. Baker. Sergeant to quartermaster, May 5,
R; R. Corson. Sergeant to quartermaster, September,
Rob't S. Lawsha. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
Wm. Litzenberg. Sergeant to captain. May 2, 1862.
Wm. Stadelman. Sergeant to A. C. S., November,
Howard A. McAfee. At Auburn, Ya., October 1 4, 1863.
John Smith. Killed at Auburn, Ya., October 11, 1863.
Rob't Maxwell. Disease, April 4, 1862.
Theodore, Shaeffer. Disease, October 18, 1861.
162 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Theodore F. Ashenfelter. Disability, February 26,
Jolin F. Anderson. Corporal. Disability, October 9,
Wm. H. Bowden. Disability, 1862.
James Conard. Disability, 1862,
Elisha Davis. Disability, January 4, 1862.
Jacob H Detra. Disability, February 3, 1863.
Charles Ford. Disability, January 4, 1862.
Alexander Gotwaltz. Disability, March 20, 186^3.
James McLennon. Disability, 1862.
Nathan Miller. Disability, January 4, 1862.
Washington Miller. Disability, January 4, 1862.
Lemuel A. Patterson. Sergeant. Disability, MarcU
^ 20, 1863.
Charles Quinby. Disability, January 20, 1862,
George Rodebough. Disability, 1862.
Lewis M. Thomas. Sergeant. Disability, February
A.P.Stanley. Corporal. Disability, January 19, 1863.
John y. Yanderslice. Disability, April 20, 1863.
John Dales. Disability, 1862.
Thomas Swift. Disability.
John L. Dougherty. For wounds, December 8, 1863.
Henry Z. Lair. To Brigade band, December 31, 1862.
George Hampton. May 25, 1862.
Evan J. Paxon. And retaken.
Samuel Staiger. October, 1862.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 163
ORGANIZATION OF C COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company C was recruited by Captain Jolin P.
Taylor and Lieutenant Wm. Mann, in Mifflin county,
and organized on the 16th day of April, 1861, and
offered its services to the State on the Itth, and was
accepted on the 18th of the same month.
It was ordered to Harrisburg on the 20th day of
April, 1861, and proceeded on the way, as far as
Lewistown, when the order was countermanded. It
was again ordered to report at Harrisburg on the 6th
day of August, and arrived there on the tth. Here
Lieutenant John P. Taylor was elected captain, Wil-
liam Mann, Jr., first lieutenant, and William T.
McEwen, second lieutenant, the company numbering
eighty-two (82) men. It was mustered into the State
service on the 10th day of August, 1861, by Colonel
Taggart, and joined the regiment.
Arrived at Washington, D. C, on the 18th day of
August, and mustered into the United Satets service
on the 2tth.
ENLISTED MEN OF C COMPANY.
Thomas A. Kearns, orderly sergeant.
J. Harvey Carson, first duty sergeant.
Michael Menges, second duty sergeant. Yet. vol., Jan-
uary 1, 1864. Wounded May 28, 1864.
Hamilton R. Mitchell, third duty sergeant.
Wilson P. Daughenbaugh, fourth duty sergeant.
George Way, fifth duty sergeant. Yet. vol., January
1,1864. Wounded July 28, 1864.
164 HISTORY Of THE FIRST REGIMENT
Jaxiob Ruble, quarter-master sergeant.
Wilson S. Dellett, commissary-sergeant. Prisoner at
Brandy Station, June 9, 1863.
John A. Davidsizer, first corporal. Yet. vol., January
1, 1864. Wounded May 9, 1864.
John Hoffman, second corporal. Yet. vol., January 1,
1864. Wounded July 28, 1864.
Charles A. Rice, third corporal
William Ready, fourth corporal. Wounded July 28,
George White, fifth corporal. Yet. vol., January 1,
1864. Wounded May 9, 1864.
William Baird, sixth corporal.
John McMahon, seventh corporal. Yet. vol., January
1, 1864. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Anthony Assadalia, eighth corporal. Wounded at Fred-
ericksburg December 12, 1862, also wounded
May 28, 1864.
Graham, Geo. W. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Brillhart, Robert M.
Cutler, Wm. D.
Cherry, John. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Chirpman, James H.
Gates, J. K. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Hooffnagle, H. N.
Jennings, Samuel N.
Latchford, Geo. W. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Livingston, Joseph H., corporal. Wounded May 28,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 165
Murray, James A. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Nail, Henry H. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Wounded
May 28, 1864.
JSTeitz, Percival. Prisoner at Brandy Station January
9, 1863. Wounded May 15, 1864.
Euble, John. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864. Wounded
July 28, 1864.
Scott, David C.
Slocum, Samuel. Yet. vol., Feb^y 1, 1864. Wounded
June 21, 1864.
Sutton, John F.
Wilson, George W.
Yontz, William, prisoner August, 1864.
Clair, William. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Gifford, Geo. W.
Derr, Jacob F.
Whitmore, Thomas. Wounded June 2, 1864.
Miller, G. W. Wounded Juie 21, 1864.
Kline, G. W. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Geo. W. Seachrist. To sergeant-major, October, 1861.
166 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Robt. J. McNitt. Sergeant to second lieutenant; Feb-
ruary 6, 1862.
John W. Nelson. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Oc-
tober 1, 1862.
James P. Landis, Sergeant to chief bugler, May 1,
Hiram McClenahen. Sergeant to first lieutenant,
February 13, 1863.
Christian Romich, sergeant. Brandy Station June 9,
John H. Deal. Culpepper September 13, 1863
William Snyder, Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1863.
Albert Laird, sergeant. Wounds received at Cedar
Mountain, September 5, 1862.
Albert Strong, corporal. Typhoid fever, December
John H. Yeager. Disease at Alexandria, June 26,
David A. Baker. May 16, 1862, from wound by acci-
dental gun shot.
Jonathan Kring. Disease and wounds, in Alexandria,
William Lint. Disease, in Alexandria, August 21,
Abner JST. McDonald, corporal. August 14, 1862, from
wounds received at Cedar Mountain, August
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 161
Amos Shank. October 24, of wound received at Au-
burn October 14, 1863.
Walker Scott, corporal. July 2, 1863, in Libby Prison,
Richmond, of wounds received at Brandy
Station June 9, 1863.
Marshall J. Stall. Disease, February 11, 1862.
W. J. Furst, sergeant. Disability, September 1, 1862.
James B. Postlewaight. Disability.
James L. McDonald. Disability, June, 1862.
A. B. Selheimer. Disability, June, 1862.
William Barefoot. Disability, October, 1862.
Jesse Alexander. Disability, (wounds,) January, 1 863.
Michael Bottorf, corporal. Disability, December 10,
Jacob Bottorf Disability, March 9, 1863.
Martin Bottorf Disability, September 9, 1862.
William Bradford. Disability.
Joseph M. Deveny. Disability.
William Kirlin. Disability, July 4, 1862.
Edwin Lochey, corporal. Disability, July 4, 1863.
Oliver H. McCalister. Disability, January 31, 1863.
James H. McClenahen. Disability, August 16, 1861.
James Robison. Disability, January 4, 1863.
Henry Swarm. Disability, May 23, 1862.
B. F. Stokes. Disability, JSFovember 8, 1861.
Edwin F. Teets. Disability, -September 23, 1861.
Benj. Pollard. Disability, January 15, 1862.
W. V. B. Coplin. Corporal. Disability, January 19,
Samuel Ross. Disability, December 16, 1863.
168 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
John T. Murray. To Invalid Corps, August 18, 1863.
John H. Ebbs. At Manassas, Ya., June 28, 1862.
Felix Nolan. At Manassas, Ya., June 28, 1862.
Paris RoUand. At Catletts, Ya., April 28, 1862.-
ORGANIZATION OF D COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company D was principally recruited at Lock
Haven, Clinton county, Pennsylvania, from the coun-
ties of Cameron and Clinton, during the month of
The company was organized August the Itth, 1861,
by the election of John W, Smith as captain, S. D.
Barrow as first lieutenant, and Hugh A. McDonald as
Was mustered into the State service, at Camp Cur-
tin, Harrisburg, August the 21st, 1861, and was
assigned to the First Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve
Left Harrisburg for Washington, August 23d, and
mustered into the United States service August the
21th, 1861, at Camp Jones, Washington, D. C, where
it joined the regiment.
ENLISTED MEN OF D COMPANY.
A. R. McDonald, orderly sergeant. Prisoner, Au-
gust, 1862. Yet. vol., February, 1864.
Geo. M. Emery, first duty sergeant.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 169
Thompson Snyder, second duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
February 1, 1864. Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Charles H. Stetson, third duty sergeant. Wounded,
May 28, 1864, and June 2, 1864.
Orlando H. Emery, fourth duty sergeant. Wounded,
July 16, 1863, at Shepherdstown, Ya.
Allen H. German, fifth duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
February 1, 1864.
Geo. Misnonier, quartermaster sergeant. Yet. vol.,
February 1, 1864.
Thos J. Rockey, commissary sergeant.
Charles A. Moorse, first corporal. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 1, 1864.
Horace Taylor, second corporal. Wounded at Cedar
Mountain, August 9, 1862, and June 9, 1864.
Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Henry TJnderham, third corporal. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 1, 1864. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
John C. Lewis, fourth corporal.
W. F. Lucore, fifth corporal. Wounded, June 21,
A. D. Rockey, sixth corporal. Yet. vol., February
W. F. Moyer, seventh corporal. Yet. vol., February
A. H. Lewis, eighth corporal Yet. vol., February
1, 1864. Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Tobias, H. R.
^ggJ; H. R.
Carpenter, Levi S. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
ItO HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Delany, William. Yet. vol., February 5, 1864.
Wounded, June 28, 1864.
Delany, Henry. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Davy, Eli C.
Frain, Jacob. Yet. vol., February, 1864.
Foster, Chester E. Yet. vol., February, 1864.
Grey, Isaiah. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Herman Thomas. Yet. vol., Februrary 6, 1864.
Killed, July 28, J 864.
Horton, William. Yet. vol., February 6, 1864. Pris-
oner, June 24, 1864.
Lewis, Alfred. Yet. vol., February 5, 1864.
Luid, Charles. Yet. vol., February 5, 1864.
Mitcheltree, Wm. H. Yet. vol., February 5, 1864.
Wounded, July 28, 1864.
Misner, Jacob B.
May, Charles. Yet. vol., February 5, 1864.
Miller, Benj. C.
Mahon, Warren. Prisoner, at Brandy Station, June
Marony, John. Prisoner, June 24, 1864.
Porchet, James. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Pfoutz, Christopher. Bugler. Yet. vol., February
Richardson, John I).
Salada, Frederick. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. HI
Stevenson B. Wounded May 28, 1864.
Williams, Wm. T. Yet. vol., February 6, 1864.
Walizer, Jonathan. Yet. vol., February 6, 1864.
Wonnded, Jnly 28, 1864.
Cridler, William. Yet. vol., February 6, 1864.
Lucore, Lemuel. Prisoner, at Cedar Mountain, Au-
gust 9, 1862.
McKinney, Charles. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Prisoner, JSTovember, 1862.
Butcher, Frank. Prisoner, June 13, 1862.
Taylor, Henry C.
Sunderland, Samuel. Yet. vol., February, 1864.
Wm. F. Butcher. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Jul}^
Marcus L. French. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
Warren L. Holbrook. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
Philip H. Walker. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
September 9, 1862.
John A. Tibbins. At Brandy Station, Ya., June 9,
R. P. Hughling. Corporal. At Cedar Mountain, Ya.,
August 9, 1862.
Gregor McGregor. Sergeant. At Cedar Mountain,
Ya., August 9, 1862.
1T2 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
Joseph Hugliling. In skirmisli at Drainesville. No-
vember 2T, 1861.
James L. Barr. October 16, 1863, of wounds received
at Anburn, Ya., October 14, 1863.
Charles C. Daniels, August 16, of wounds received
at Cedar Mountain, Ya., August 9, 1862.
John L. Knight. Disease, October 31, 1861.
Wm. B. Rogers. Wounds, September 9, 1862.
W. P. Stewart. Disease, at Warrenton,Ya., Septem-
ber 13, 1863.
Angus McDonald. Disease, November, 1862.
Bufus Roudenberg. Disease, November, 1862.
Ellis Perry. December 18, 1863, of wounds received
November 27, 1863.
Charles Amiden Disability, November 18, 1862.
B. M. P. Baird. Wounds, December 16, 1862.
Almarion Chapman. Disability, September 13, 1863.
Twice taken prisoner.
Benjamin Emery. December 24, 1862.
Alexander H. Gabe. Disability, February 12, 1863.
Alexander Henderson. Corporal. Disability, March
Wm. Johnson. Disability, December 10, 1862.
Daniel Kester. Disability, January 13, 1863.
A. D. Ligget. Disability, October 25, 1863.
John Luich. Disability, March 14, 1863.
Mortimer Longwell. Corporal. Disability, March 14,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 1^3
James Misner. Wounds, January 26, 1863, received
at Cedar Mountain, August 19, 1862.
Cliarles Mclntyre. Disability, August 10, 1861.
John Passal. Disability, May 16, 1862.
Wm. A. Quiggle. Corporal. Wounds at Cedar
Mountain, August 9, 1862.
J. R. Kacard. Corporal. Disability, Is'ovember 18, 1861.
Elias Rossman. Disability, April 28, 1863.
Calvin P. Russel. Disability, March 19, 1863.
B. P. Straw. December 24, 1862, from wounds re^
ceived at Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862.
David W. Tibbens. Disability, January 13, 1863.
John Whiteman. Disability, April 10, 1863.
John H. Ruir. Disability, May 11, 1862.
Charles Anderson. Disability, January 9, 1863.
R. J. Davison. To the First Regiment Pennsylvania
Reserve Rifles, December 16, 1861,
Abraham R Brant. Near Manassas, Va , June 18,
Samuel D, Puller. Near Catalett, Ya., April 29, 1862.
Henry S. Hoffman. Near Manassas, Ya., June, 1862.
Wm. Jones. October, 1862.
Russel Miller. At time of enlistment, 1861.
John Rubert. At time of enlistment, 1861.
Joseph Hilsher. July, 1863.
IH HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
ORGANIZATION OF E COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company E was principally recruited in Centre
county, Pennsylvania, by Captain Jonathan Wolf,
with some few recruits from Clinton and Clearfield
Was organized on the 19th day of March, 1861,
and left for Harrisburg on the 25th day of July, 1861,
and arrived at Washington, D. C, August the 18th,
where it was attached to the regiment.
ENLISTED MEN OF E COMPANY.
William C. Wilky, orderly sergeant. Wounded July
Jesse Ery, first duty sergeant. Yet. vol., January 1,
John Craft, second duty sergeant. Yet. vol., Eebruary
20, 1864. Wounded, July 28, 1864.
H. H. McCullough, third duty sergeant. Killed June
Edwin B. Holt, fourth duty sergeant. Yet. vol., Eeb-
ruary 20, 1864.
John Williams, fifth duty sergeant.
Walter S. Lint, quartermaster-sergeant. Yet. vol.,
Eebruary 1, 1864 Wounded June 21, 1864.
William Wilson, commissary-sergeant.
Y/m. H. Buck, first corporal. Yet. vol., January 1,
1864. Prisoner at Cedar Mountain August
Jacob Raymond, second corporal
TENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 1^5
Wm. Lowery, third corporal. Wounded at Brandy
Station June 9, 1863. Killed,May 28, 1864.
Samuel J. Krotzer, fourth corporal.
Wm. N. Esworthy, fifth corporal. Yet. vol., February
20, 1864. Mortally wounded June 21, 1864.
Alvy, Marion, bugler.
Checkman, Henry. Yet. vol., February 20, 1864.
Dewitt, Martin. Wounded May 9, 1864.
Fulton, James. Yet. vol. January 1, 1864.
Grant, Thomas W. Yet. vol. , January 1,1864. Prisoner
July 28, 1864.
Gault, James Y. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Wounded
June 21, 1864.
Hunter, Paniel W. Wounded at New Hope Church,
November 21, 1863.
Hatter, Joseph. Prisoner June 24, 1864. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
Keys, Stanley A. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864,
Kearns, Pat. B. Wounded August 14, 1864.
Laughman, Donas. Yet. vol., February. Prisoner at
Brandy Station June 9, 1863.
McMullen, Frank A. Yet.'vol., February 1, 1864.
Neiman, A. B. Prisoner November 16, 1863.
Null, John. Wounded at New Hope Church, Novem-
ber 21, 1863.
Parr, Joseph. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
176 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Reese, Valentine. Wounded June 1, 1864.
Struble, John C. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Saxton, Timothy. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Shaffer, William. Mortally wounded June 21, 1864.
Wyland, William. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864,
Toomis, George. Wounded May 28, 1864.
J ohnston C. Akers. Sergeant to first lieutenant, June
John A. Bayard. To first lieutenant, December, 1862.
Charles L. Bufiington. To battalion adjutant, March,
Amos M. Herrick. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
February 13, 1863.
Samuel Lipton. Sergeant to second lieutenant.
Jeremiah IN'ewman. Sergeant to first lieutenant,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. Itt
George Bruss. Hospital, 1862.
John Cook, corporal. Disease, J^ovember 18, 1862.
Thomas B. Fenton. Disease, March 18, 1862.
Charles R. Fells, corporal. Disease, August, 1863.
Witherite William. Disease, October, 1863.
Thomas R. Anderson. Disability.
Henry Atkins, sergeant. Disability.
John C. Bradley. Disability, January 15, 1863.
William T. Buck. Disability, December, 1862.
Henry J. Boell. Disability, March, 1863.
John H. Fox. Disability, August, 1861.
Michael Fausey. Disability, February 18, 1863.
Peter Gesiwite. Disability, August 21, 1861.
Kankin Hollabaugh. Disability, February, 1862^
Frank Heckendorn. Disability, September, 1862.
James M. Howe, sergeant. Disability, January 13,
George James. Disability, February, 1862.
James Keys. Disability, February, 1862.
Levi Kline. Disability, November, 1861.
Des Cartes Kelly. Disability, March, 1863.
Henry Klapp. Disability, January, 1862.
William C. Murray, sergeant. Disability, Februar}^,
Eli Mercer. Disability, April, 1862.
James Miller. Disability, December, 1862.
Samuel Mills. Disability, February, 1862.
Bernard Morrison. Disability, January, 1862.
nS HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Abraham Miller. Disability, December, 1863.
Hugh Martin. Dishonorably discharged for disability,
January T, 1864.
Milton Neiman. Disability, JSFovember, 1862.
John Osborn. Disability, April, 1862.
Fenton Phalon. Disability, February, 1863.
Reuben Roup. Disability, March, 1863.
William Summers. Disability, November, 1861.
Joseph Shoup. Disability, September, 1862.
Rufus Stratton. Disability, September 16, 1862.
Henry D. Sands. Disability, October 9, 1862.
John H. Thomas. Disability, August, 1862.
Joseph Schlem, corporal. Disabillt}^, February 6, 1863.
David R. Wiser. Disability, January, 1862.
Calvin Wolf. Disability, April 6, 1863.
John W. Ward. Disability, March, 1863.
Philip Wenterodd. Disability, October, 1862.
Thompson Wilson, Invalid Corps.
Arthur Swisher. March 1, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OF F COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company F was enlisted by Captain J. M Harper,
about the latter part of July and beginning of Au-
gust, 1861, at Carmichael's, Green county, Pennsyl-
Started for Camp Curtin, at Harrisburg, on the
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. HO
15th day of August, was organized on the 1 iTth, and
sworn into the United States service on the 24th, by
Captain Hastings, and attached to the regiment.
Leaving Camp Curtin, the company arrived at
Camp Jones, on the 2nh day of August, 1861.
ENLISTED MEN OF F COMPANY.
Jonas E. Lucas, orderly sergeant. Prisoner by guer-
rillas, JN'ovember 11, 1863.
John H. Black, first duty sergeant.
James K. Gregg, second duty sergeant. Wounded at
Auburn, Ya., October 14, 1863.
Geo. W. Evans, third duty sergeant.
John Haver, fourth duty sergeat.
John R. Dunlap, fifth duty sergeant. Wounded on
picket, November, 1863.
Vincent Worthington, quartermaster sergeant. A^et.
vol., February 1, 1864.
J. H. Hoge, commissary sergeant. Wounded at
Brandy Station, June 9, 1863.
Wm. H. H. Eberhart, first corporal. Yet. vol., Feb-
ruary 23, 1864.
M. Y. B. Mercer, second corporal.
John Jones, third corporal.
Samuel ,W. Dugan, fourth corporal.
Alvin H. Wilson, fifth corporal.
Joseph H. Shaffer, sixth corporal. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 1, 1864. Prisoner, June 24, 1864.
Jesse Hughes, seventh corporal. Yet. vol., February
13, 1864. Wounded August 22, 1864.
Thomas F. Reppert, eig^ith corporal. Wounded July
180 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Seaton, Geo. W.
Worthington, James, bugler.
RMnehart, David H., bugler.
Harne, William. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Anderson, John. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Alfred, Asa S. Wounded, May 5, 1864.
Baker, David S. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Brown, James W. Prisoner, August, 1862, and No-
vember n, 1863.
Cummings, James R. Yet. vol., February 13, 1864.
Crayne, Isaac B.
Cree, Joseph M.
Dean, John W.
Craigo, Thomas. Prisoner, June 24, 1864.
Hight, Peter A.
Houseman, Saml S. Yet. vol., February 3, 1864.
McFarland, John F.
Mayhorn, Nelson. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Midlam, Enoch W. Prisoner, at Brandy Station,
January 9, 1863.
Neff, Abraham. .Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Phillips, James W. Prisoner, on picket, November
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 181
Shape, Demos J. Wounded and prisoner at Brandy
Station, June 9, 1863.
Sliawmon, John F.
Walters, John W. Wounded, May 9, 1864.
Walters, John A.
Young, Andrew J. Yet. vol., February 13, 1864.
Fordyce, Justus G. Wounded July 28, 1864.
Ross, Ira. Prisoner at Brandy Station, June 9, 1863.
Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Crawford, George W.
Grove, James P.
Johnston, George W. L.
Brestel, Jacob. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Grimm, David C.
Carry, Sylvester P.
Zollars, Richard S.
Ely, Caleb. Wounded at Auburn, Ya., October 14,
Crawford, G. W. Prisoiier, June 24, 1864.
Ruble, James. Wounded at. Brandy Station, June 9,
lUguifritz, D. F.
182 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Gresley, Charles. Prisoner at IS'ew Hope Church,
JS^OYember 21, 1863.
Poleman, Wm. K. Prisoner at New Hope Church,
NoYember 2t, 1863.
Grass, Henry. Prisoner on the Rapidann river, Sep-
tember 15, 1863.
Kridel, Frederick Yf .
Phillips, Addison. Wounded May 10, 1864.
Cree, H. C. Wounded at Auburn,. Ya., October 14,
Phillips, J. A.
Shawmon, J. W.
Craigo, James. Mortally wounded, May 28, 1864^
Harne, A. M. Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Levi K. EYans. Sergeant to second lieutenant, No-
Yember 14, 1861.
Sam'l S. Greenlee. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
June 13, 1862.
TL A. Wood. To Reg't C. S., June 16, 1862.
Thomas Lucas. To second lieutenant, June, 1862.
George W. Teagarden. Killed at Mount Jackson,
Ya., June 3,' 1862.
Abner Murdock. Killed, July 12, 1864.
Geo. W. Beam. Disease, December 16, 1863.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 183
Samuel E. Dunlap. Disease, January 13, 1863.
William Evans. Disease, January 19, 1862.
William Jones. Disease, July 16, 1862.
Samuel Houlsworth. Sergeant. Disease, November
David L. Keener. Disease, July 12, 1863.
Anthony Fraunk. Disease, December 29, 1863.
James Alton. Disability, September 22, 1862.
Thomas Berch. Disability, March 11, 1863
James P. Crawford. Disability, October 11, 1862.
Wm. Cummings. Disability, January 4, 1862
Hugh D. Cree. Disabled, January 4,1862.
Harrison Gump. Disability, April 20, 1863.
John W. Hopkins. Disability, December 4, 1862.
Henry S. Jenkins. Disability, January 19, 1862.
James R. Kendel. Disability, January 28, 1862.
Wm. McClelland. Disability, January 28, 1863.
Geo. W. McClelland. Disability, February 16, 1863.
John F. McCullough. By order, January 16, 1862.
Thomas H. Nutt. Disability, December 16, 1862.
William Rush. Disability, January 27, 1863.
John M. Shape. Disability, April 29, 1863.
Richard D. Simners. Disability, June 1, 1862.
Philip L. Kramer. Disability, January 4, 1862.
B. K. Higgenbotham. Disability, March 6, 1862.
Lawrence B. Craft. Disabili-ty, July 28, 1862.
Simeon S. Lucas. Disability, September, 18, 1863.
Smith Steaton. Disability, December 8, 1862.
James H. Fordyce. Disability, March 13, 1863.
Newton Kigly. By order, May 26, 1863.
184 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Henry B. King. To Invalid Corps, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OP Gr COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
The formation of Company Gr was commenced by
Captain Jacob Iliggins, at Hollidaysburg, Blair
county, Pennsylvania, from a volunteer company
called the Blair County Dragoons.
About the middle of August, 1861, having collected
a few men as a nucleus, he proceeded with them to
Camp Curtin, Harrisburg, where with part of a com-
pany from Lisburn, Cumberland county, and recruits
collected while in camp, the company was filled and
its organization completed, by the election of Jacob
Higgins, captain, David Gardner, first lieutenant, and
H. S. Thomas, second lieutenant.
This company having been principally recruited at
Harrisburg, during the retnrn of the three months
men, was collected from all parts of the State, and
among its members has representatives from thirty-
two difierent counties.
The company was mustered into the State service,
August the 22d, and 'into the United States service,
August the 28th, 1861, when it was assigned to the
First Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry.
It arrived in Washington, August the 29th, where
it joined the regiment.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 185
ENLISTED MEN OF G COMPANY.
Samuel Kilpatrick, orderly sergeant. Yet. vol., Feb-
ruary 1, 1864.
John 0. Clark, first duty sergeant. Yet. vol., March
Geo. W. Cyphers, second duty sergeant.
Francis S. Spiegel, third duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
John W. Bruner, fourth duty sergeant. Taken prisoner
June 9, 1863. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Transferred to Signal Corps.
R. G. Howerter, fifth duty sergeant.
John Rohrbaugh, commissary sergeant. Yet. vol ,
February 1, 1864.
Thomas McGinly, quartermaster sergeant. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
John W. Taylor, first corporal. Prisoner, June 24, 1864.
John D. Richards, second 'corporal. Wounded, June
24, 1864. '
Philip Seiferts, third corporal.
H. C. Portner, fourth corporal. Yet. vol., January 1,
1864. Mortally wounded June 21, 1864.
Jerome Kishbaugh, fifth corporal. Prisoner, June 9,
1863. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Isaac Kennedy, sixth corporal. Regimental color-
Samuel Reese, seventh corporal.
Fritz, Wm. D., Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
McDonald, James M. Died in hospital.
Corl, Abram. Wounded at battle of Bull Run, Au-
gust 30, 1862, als^ July 28, 1864.
186 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Greaves, Erancis S.
Buch, Milton, bugler.
Cory, Warren R. Wounded at Culpepper, Ya., Sep-
tember 13, 1863.
Campbell, William. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Trans-
ferred to Signal Corps.
Delancy, Wm. P.
Grey, Mercer. Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Hawn, Samuel K. Mortally wounded at St. Mary's
Cliurch, June 24, 1864.
HigMer, Adam. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Hull, Kobert. P. Prisoner at Sulphur Springs, Ya.,
Lantz, John, bugler. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
McFarland, Daniel. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864; and
a prisoner August 1, 1862.
Mullin, Patrick. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864,
Munch, Wm. Drowned, May It, 1864, in James river.
jN'ewman, David W.
Page H. W. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Killed May
Reed, John M.
Reese, William. Yet. vol* January 1, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 18t
Rhoads, William, blacksmith.
Snell, Aaron. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864, and wounded
at ISTew Hope Churcli, November 2t, 1863.
Shawley, Henry, blacksmith.
Wike, William, teamster.
Ely, William, saddler.
Hall, Wilmer C.
Bently, Abram. Wounded at Brandy Station, Ya.,
June 9, 1863.
Piatt, Hiram. Promoted to first sergeant.
Pugh, Evan. Wounded at Brandy Station, June 9,
Cory, George A.
Stewart, Charles R.
Wiggins, Daniel. Wounded, August, 1862.
James Benninghoff. Severely wounded and prisoner
at New Hope Church, Ya., November 2T, 1863.
H. C. Beamer. Sergeant-major to first lieutenant,
E. P. Confer. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Sep-
Alonzo Pveed. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Novem-
ber 24, 1862.
188 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
George J. Geiser. Sergeant-major to second lieu-
tenant, April 12, 1863.
Wm. P. Lloyd. Private to hospital steward, Decem-
ber 18, 1862.
John McCahan. Private to commissary sergeant,
January 28, 1863.
William Grey. December 21, 1862.
Cyrus Rosenberger. January T, 1863.
William Hoffman. Disability, 1862.
George W. Briggs, corporal. Disability, March, 1862.
John S. Stubbs, corporal. Disability, October 1, 1861.
Jacob Boyev. Disability, January, 1863.
William Boyer. Disability, February 1862.
George FuUeton. Disability, March 18, 1863, from
George W. Fisher. Disability, September, 1862.
David H. Gates. Disability, August, 1862, from
Joseph Gonder. Disability, March, 1862.
Jonathan Harper. Disability, March, 1862.
John Lewis. Disability, September, 1861, from
James McCahan. Disability, February, 1862.
Samuel D. Palsgrove. ' Disability, April, 1863.
Daniel Kittle. Disability, April, 1863, from wound.
Albert Buggies. Disability, 1862.
Horatio Rembaugh. Disability, February, 1863.
Joseph Rocks. Bisahility, 18C)2.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 189
Peter W. Swoap. Disability, October, 1862.
John Seabolt, Disability, March, 1862.
Zac. Welty. Disability, January 18, 1868.
John XJhler. Accidental wound, August, 1862.
Chas. H. Hutchison. Disability, January, 186.3.
Wm. Strickland, sergeant. Disability, March, 1862.
James M. Adams, corporal. To second lieutenant
Corps de Afrique.
E-ussel Ballets. Invalid Corps, September, 1863.
John C. McCullough. Invalid Corps, September, 1863,
Ernest Conzler. Regular army, November, 1862,
Hiram Crowl. Time of enlistment.
Julius Eicholtz. Time of enlistment
Lawrence Fought. Time of enlistment.
James Fulleton. Time of enlistment
Jonathan Kilmore. Time of enlistment.
John C. Kristy Time of enlistment.
Israel Meyers. December 1, 1861.
John A. Orner. Time of enlistment.
John Williams. April 11, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OP H COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company H was organized in Fayette county,
Pennsylvania, by Captain James B. Davidson, some
two or three years previous to the commencement of
the rebellion, and was known as the '^Dunlap Creek
190 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Shortly after the First Bull Run battle, the com-
pany tendered its services to the United States, and
was acce|tted. On the first day of August, 1861, it
ife for Camp Wilkins, at Pittsburg, and on the fourth
day of August was sworn into the United States
On the twenty-seventh day of August, the company
left Camp Wilkins for Washington, D. C, where it
arrived on the twenty-ninth ; and on the sixth day of
September was mustered into the United States ser-
vice, and joined to the regiment.
ENLISTED MEN OF H COMPANY.
Joseph Hostetler, orderly sergeant. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 16, 1863. Wounded, May 9, 1864.
George B. Kingsland, first duty sergeant. Prisoner
at New Hope Church, November 21, 1863.
Benjamin F. Hibbs, second duty sergeant. Wounded,
May 28, 1864.
William Phillips, third duty sergeant.
Harrison Mann, fourth duty sergeant.
Cyrus A. Porter, quarter-master sergeant.
James Normine, commissary sergeant.
James 0. Llewellen, first corporal
George Brown, second corporal. Wounded May 9,
1864, and August 14, 1864.
Robert F. Hibbs, third -corporal.
John M. Watson, fourth corporal. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 16, 1864.
Henry Keifer, fifth corporal. Yet. vol., Feb. 16, 1864.
Isaac Richey, sixth corporal. Yet. vol., Feb. 16, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 191
Kobert Thompson, seventh corporal. Wounded, May
William Glunt, eighth corporal.
James P. Scott, bugler.
Edward Hunt, blacksmith.
Isaac Brewer, farrier.
David Matthers, saddler.
McMullin, Albert. Prisoner, at Culpepper, Septem-
ber 13, 1863.
Warner, Thomas E.
Yanhorn, James D. Prisoner, October 22, 1863.
Killed, July 28, 1864.
Nutt, Joseph *E. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Arnold Albert H. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Adams, John. Yet. vol., February 16, 1864.
Algeo, Charles. Wounded at Auburn Mills, October
Algeo, David. Wounded June 21, 1864.
Byers, David A.
Cox, John E. Wounded, May 1, 1864.
Cox, Robert B.
Dickenson, William. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Dickenson, John P. Wounded, May 9, 1864.
Eall, John B.
192 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Garrett, Joseph. Prisoner, December 15, 1863, by
Jenkins, Thomas. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Logan, Jackson. Vet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Michaels, Wm. H.
Marshall, John F. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
McFall, Samuel. Yet. vol., February 16, 1864.
Minehart, William W.
JS'ormine, Thomas. Prisoner at Culpepper, Septem-
ber 13, 1863.
Rictor, John E.
Reid, Wm. F. Prisoner, October 25, 1863.
Richey, Wm. A. Prisoner, October 25, 1863.
Yankirk, John. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Walker, Barnabas W. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Work, George T.
McCaffrey, James. Wounded, June 2, 1864.
I^icholson, Thomas. Prisoner, September 6, 1863.
Normine, John S.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 193
Denny, John A.
Johnston, Thomas A. Killed at Gettysburg, July 2,
Wm. S. Craft Orderly sergeant to first lieutenant,
October 22, 1862.
John D. Scott, Private to first lieutenant, Novem-
ber 21, 1861.
Eli S. Forsyth. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Feb-
ruary 12, 1863.
James Jackson. Sergeant to second lieutenant, Sep-
Madison Davies. Disease, , at Alexandria, Ya., De-
Moses B. Ewing. Disease, at Washington, Septem-
William Stewart. Disease, at Camp Pierpont, Ya.,
December IT, 1861.
James P. Walker. Disability, February 11, 1863.
Wm. W. Messmore. Disability, March 21, 1862.
Daniel Fearer. Disability, f'ebruary 5, 1863.
John C. Bird. Disability, February 4, 1863.
Charles P. Coats. Disability, December 31, 1861.
John W. Chalfant. Disability, December 31, 1861.
James Fawcit. Disability, 1862.
194 HISTORY OF THE FIEST REGIMENT
Alexander Johns. Disability, April 12, 1862,
John Litton. Disability, October t, 1863.
Alexander Lane. Disability, 1862.
Wm. W MelcM. Disability, January 13, 1863.
Yincent Owens. Disability, December 81, 1861.
John A. Eice. Disability.
Wm. Sewenger. Disability, January 13, 1863.
Henry Tate. Disability-, April 8, 1862.
James Yarner. Disability, December 31, 1861.
James McCune. Disability, 1862.
Edson sturgeon. To Sixth U. S. Cavalry, October,
Wm. A. Yanhorn. To Invalid Corps, 1863.
Jesse S. p. Balsinger. From Hospital, 1862.
Wm. Bennett. At Aquia creek, Ya., 1863.
James C. Greene. At Alexandria, Ya., 1862.
Wm. M. Eemmel. From Hospital, April, 1862.
Ilob'tW. Shroyer. AtMt Jackson, Ya., June 30, 1862.
Alexander Price. July, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OF I COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company I, First Eegiment Pennsylvania Reserve
Cavalry, made up o'f citizens of different parts of
Washington county, Pennsylvania, is a part of what
was once the ^' Winfield Hussars," an old volunteer
organization, commanded by then Major W. W.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY- 195
This company was sworn into the State service
by Captain Robert Patterson, at Pittsburg, Pennsyl-
vania, on the 13th, day of August, 1861. Left Pitts-
burg August the 26th, for Washington, D, C, in
company with several other organizations, comprising
what was then know as the Sixth Regiment Penn-
sylvania Cavalry, and went into camp on Seventh
On the Gth day of September, 1861, the company
was mustered into the United States service.
The regiment to which it was then attached, failing
to complete its organization, was disbanded by order
of General McClellan, and this company, together
with two other companies, was incorporated with the
First Regiment Pennsylvania Reserve Cavalry, of
which it is ndW a part.
ENLISTED MEN OP I COMPANY.
Samuel T. Work, orderty sergeant. Wounded, August
James D. Scott, first duty sergeant.
Alex'r C. Elliott, second duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864. Wounded, June 21, 1864.
John L. Mustard, third duty sergeant. Wounded,
June. 21, 1864.
Rob't D. Wilkin, fourth duty sergeant.
David Pollock, fifth duty sergeant.
Samuel W. McKee, quartermaster sergeant. Wounded
June 21, 1864.
Patrick H. McXulty, commissary sergeant. Wounded,
May 28, 1864.
Hillary Wilson, first corporal.
196 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Thomas Richmond, second corporal.
David McGuigan, third corporal. Wounded, May 28,
Lewis Kramer, fourth corporal, color guard.
Berwick, Franklin. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Bitts, Samuel T. Taken prisoner twice.
Curtis, Wm. A. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Conau, Thomas H.
Gibson, John. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Longhead, John. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864,
McConkey, Isaac. -Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
McConkey, Smithson. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864,
McKinley, John. Prisoner by guerrillas, September
McCormick, Walter S.
Murray, Chester, bugler.
McCall, William • ,
Patterson, Thomas. Prisoner b,y guerrillas, Septem-
ber 6, 1863. Died March 30, 1864, at Hos-
pital Annapolis, Md.
Patten, Wm. P.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 19t
Robertson, John L. Yet. vol., Jamiary 1, 1864.
Rosenberger, Alexander. Prisoner.
Rippey, Wm. J.
Sanppe, John Gf.
Wells, Grafton. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
La Barr, George J. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Bingham, John A. Wounded, May 9, 1864.
Morrow, Charles. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Milligan, Peter. Prisoner b}^ guerrillas, September 6,
James M. Gaston. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
August 24, 1861.
George W". Lyon. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
February 12, 1863.
T. 0. McGregor. Sergeant to second lieutenant, May
Francis S. Morgan. Sergeant to first lieutenant, Feb-
ruary 12, 1863.
T. 11. Storer. Chief bugler, October, 1861.
Jacob Wolf. Regimental veterinary surgeon, April,
J. B. Richey. Sergeant to second lieutenant.
David Ackelson, corporal. Near King George Court
House, April 26, 1863.
James Barry, corporal. By guerrillas, September 6,
198 HISTORY or THE FIRST REGIMENT
Eli Leskelett. Near King George Court House, Ya.,
April 26, 1863.
Moses Hastings, corporal, liear King George Court
House, Ya., April 26, 1863.
Thomas Eiclimond, corporal. May 21, 1864, Milford
Smithson McConkey. May 21, 1864, Milford Sta-
George W. Gist. Disease, December, 1861.
Jacob George. Disease, December, 1861.
James W. McKee. Accidental gun-shot, January,
Thomas Parkes. Disease, January 18, 1862.
Wm. M. Porter. Disease, September 28, 1862.
John G. Y^ells, sergeant. Disease, February 26, 1862.
Alexander Berwick. Disability, April 15, 1862.
John Beacroft. Disability, December 24, 1861.
Andrew Crouch. Disability, April 15, 1862.
Thomas Dunkel. Disability, January 1, 1862.
John P. Foust. Disability, April 15, 1862.
John H. Gaston, corporal. Disability, October 2t,
Joshua J. Hunter. Disability, April 15, 1862.
James Miller, Jr. Disability, December 23, 1862.
James Miller, Sen. Disability, December 23, 1862.
Andrew F. McClure. Disability, January 15, 1863.
Wm. F. Patten. Disability, February 13, 1863.
Louis Quilland. Disability, January 15, 1863.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 199
John Kichmond, sergeant. Disability, October 6, 1862.
VVm. H. Rose. Disability, June, 1862.
Wm. F. Smith. "Disability, March 1, 1862.
Alexander L. Williams. Disability, August 16, 1862.
Alexand^er E. Wythe, sergeant. Disability, December,
Wm. Denniston, sergeant. Disability, April 2, 1863.
Lorenzo A. Kice. Disability, June 2, 1862.
William 0. Richey, corporal. Disability, October,
Edward Powelson. January IT, 1862.
Thomas G. Dowling, June 11, 1862.
ORGANIZATION OP K COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company K is composed of men from Allegheny
and Washington counties.
Before entering the service, they formed two volun-
teer organizations, known as the ''National Lancers,'^
of Allegheny county, commanded by Captain W.
Boyce; and the '' Union Cavalry," of Finleyville,
Washington county, commanded by Captain A. Bor-
About one week before entering the service, the
two companies joined, and formed one organization,
called the ''^N^ational Cavalry," commanded by Cap-
tain W. Boyce.
A portion of the company enlisted August the 28th,
200 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
1861, and the rest September the 3d, 1861, at Pitts-
Was sworn in on the 3d of September, by Colonel
Left Pittsburg on the 4th, and arrived in Washing-
ton, D. C, on September the Uh.
When it arrived in Washington, it was assigned
to the Sixth regiment Pennsylvania Cavalry. Mus-
tered into service on the 6th day of September.
The Sixth regiment being disbanded, the company
was assigned to the First Regiment Pennsylvania
Preserve Cavalry, on the 2'Ith day of September, of
which it is now a part.
ENLISTED MEN OF K COMPANY.
A. B. Darrah, orderly sergeant.
.1. A. Latimer, first duty sergeant.
J. W. Boyce, second duty sergeant.
Rob't Boyce, quartermaster sergeant.
J. Patterson, commissary sergeant
J. M. Boyce, first corporal. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
S. F. Ralston, second corporal.
J. Connelly, third corporal.
T. Westerman, fourth corporal.
S. R. Patten, fifth corporal.
McClure, Wm. J.
Kiefer, John, bugler. Prisoner, at Sulphur Springs,
August 22, 1862.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY, 201
Boyce, Thomas D.
Calohan, Charles A.
Dilks, Charles P. Prisoner, November H, 1863, by
Duncan, John M.
Jones, Thomas. Yet. vol., February 1, 186i. Priso-
ner, June 21, 1864.
Kennedy, Joseph M.
Maradith, John. Prisoner, at Bealton Station, Oc-
tober 14, 1863.
McAllister, John F.
McDonell, J. C.
llorrison, H. R.
Morgan, John H.
202 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Coup, Williams. Wounded, July 28, 1864.
Joseph McClenehan. At Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1 863.
John Keifer, bugler. May 28, 1864.
Richard Lessnut. May 28, 1863.
John F. Kennedy, sergeant. Disease, July 26, 1863.
Wilson Gault, corporal. Disease, December 1, 1863.
James Ewing. Disease, November 22, 1863.
Joseph M. Sheffer Disease, December 10, 1862.
Joseph Wright, sergeant. Disability, June 5, 1862.
Samuel Morton, corporal. Disability, August 18, 1862.
Thomas Conner, corporal. Disability, April 11, 1863.
Samuel Brown. Disability, April 28, 1863.
Robert Cani. Disability, May 21, 1862.
John Douglass. By order, January 10, 1863.
William Ewing. Disability, April 28, 1862.
Hamilton Ingrin, Disability, April 10, 1863.
James M. G. Mouck. Disability, February 9, 18631
Joseph M. Sample. Disability, January, 1863.
William Stewart. Disability, September 29, 1862.*
Benjamin F. Shields. Disability, August 31, 1863.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 203
J. F. Dodcl. To Invalid Corps, 1863.
Andrew G. Happer. To Eleventh Pennsylvania
John Dimlar. October 31, 1862.
Wm. H. Meanor. October 31, 1862.
Wm. S. Wilson. October 31, 1862.
ORGANIZATION OF L COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE OAVALRY.
Company L was, originally, an old militia organi-
zation, called the Reading City Troop. It was re-
organized by Captain J. C. A. Hoffeditz, from men
principally of Berks county, with a few from Lan-
caster and Lebanon counties, and was mustered into
the United States service as an independent company
of cavalry, on the 30th day of July, 1861.
The company was stationed in the city of Balti-
more, on duty at head-quarters Military Depot, about
five months. It was attached to the First Regiment
Tennsylvania Reserve Cavalry, October the 14th,
1861, and joined the regiment January the 5th, 1862,
at Camp Pierpont, Ya.
ENLISTED MEN OP L COMPANY.
Kbuj. F. Hull, orderly sergeant,
^am'l H. Shiffert, first duty sergeant.
Wm. A. Tobias, second duty sergeant.
204 HISTORY OP THE FIRST REGIMENT
Joseph Buck, third duty sergeant. Prisoner, June 21,
Lewis M. Hoffeditz, fourth duty sergeant.
Peter Deisher, fifth duty sergeant.
Daniel Ilowder, quartermaster sergeant Prisoner,
June 21, 1864.
Daniel Howder, commissary sergeant. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
John H. Johnson, first corporal. Yet. vol., January
1, 1864. Prisoner at Brandy Station, Ya.,
June 9, 1863, also June 21, 1864.
Robert M. Devine, setJond corporal. Yet. vol., Janu-
ary 1, 1864.
John Kreamer, third corporal. Wounded at Culpep-
per, Ya., September 13, 1863.
Thomas Wendling, fourth corporal. Yet. vol., Feb-
ruary 1, 1864. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
John M. Algaier, fifth corporal.
David Mundshower, sixth corporal.
Dewilla H. Long, seventh corporal. Yet. vol., February
Francis M. Coover. Wounded at New Hope Church,
Ya., November 2Y, 1863.
Buck, Peter C.
Fagan, Patrick, blacksinith.
Reber, Jacob H.
Addis, Daniel. Wounded at Brandy Station, June 9,
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 205
Brownmiller, H. H. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Wounded, June 21, 1864.
Bachman, Aaron E. Prisoner at New Hope Church,
November 2Y, 1863.
Black, Hugh W. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Borkman, John 0.
Doyle, John H. Prisoner at Cedar Mountain, August
Derrick, Henry. Wounded at New Hope Church,
November 2T, 1863.
Fisher, Peris S.
Presse, Geo. P.
Moyer, Mahlon G.
Irvine, Wm. H. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Irvin, Robert F. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
James, Geo. W. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Prisoner,
June 21, 1864.
Knauss, Thomas. Prisoner at Cedar Mountain, Au-
gust 9, 1862. Wounded at New Hope Church,
November 2T, 1863.
Lindenmuth, J. H. A.
Laven, Albert S.
Lindley, Thomas. Wounded at Culpepper, Ya., Sep-
tember, 13, 1863.
Loy, Henry W. Yet. vol , February 1, 1864.
Moyer, Adam, Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
206 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Noecker, Augustus R.
Pfleager, Samuel M.
Keed, Samuel. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Wounded,
June 21, 1864.
Rigiitmeyer, Wm. II. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Rogers, Joseph F.
Rudy, Henry S. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Ruigler, Daniel S.
Stoltz, John. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Prisoner,
, June 21, 1864.
Small, Samuel. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Warner, Augustus H. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Werner, William W., bugler. Yet. vol., January 1,
Wilson, George P.
RECRUITS RECEIVED FEBRUARY 28, 1864.
Reefsn^^der, David B.
penNkSylvanta reserve cavalry. 20 1
Robst, Isaac. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Brenizer, Franklin. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Dixon, Daniel R..
Griger, David H. Prisoner, June 21, 1864.
Jackson, Robert W.
Leiser, Wm. B. Wounded, July 28, 1864.
Reed, Daniel. Prisoner, June 25, 1864,
Sanders, Geo. P.
Lotz, Wm. D.
Charles Lichtenthaller. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
David S. Buxton. Sergeant to second lieutenant,
June 26, 1863.
George W. Pincher. Private to regimental quarter-
master sergeant, November 1, 1862.
208 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Michael Donovan, sergeant. At Brandy Station, Ya.,
Jeremiah Gronwich. By guerrillas, Oct. IT, 1863.
John Miller. On railroad.
John Kramer. June 21, 1864.
Robert Jackson. June 21, 1864.
John Doyle. June 21, 1864.
George P. Freeze. May 21, 1864.
John Black. Disease, April 25, 1862.
Joseph R. Lacy. Disease, December 3, 1863.
Henry Mochamer. Disease, April T, 1862.
George Patterson. Disease, December 8, 1862.
Levi Reeder. Disease, September 10, 1862.
William Werks. Disease, December 26, 1863.
George Kemp, sergeant. Disease, July IT, 1863.
Cyrus Bentz, sergeant. Disability, October 6, 1861.
Jeremiah K. Rhoads, sergeant. Disability, March 10,
Wm. D. Hoppenheffer, sergeant. Disability, Novem-
ber 8, 1861.
Augustus H. Rhoades, sergeant. Disability, March
Benjamin F. Bright, sergeant. By order.
Benoval G. Pretzman, -corporal. Disability, June 27,
John Giles, corporal. Disability, December 9, 1862.
Nicholas Seyfert. Disability, December 16, 1861.
Isaac S. Dissenger. Disability, November 23, 1861.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 209
James M. Hauler, sergeant. Disability, November 3,
Charles L. Harrison. Disability, May 6, 1862.
Peter Humble. Disability, March 16, 1862.
John A. Kerns. Disability, December 8, 1862.
Lewis Kraushorf. Disability.
Peter Noll. Disability.
Samuel Ness. Disability, April 19, 1862.
Joseph Ritter. Disability, December 16, 1863.
Effinger Rhoads. Disability, December 11, 1862
Daniel H, Ruth. Disability, December 16, 1861.
Aaron Stann. Disability, November 8, 1861.
Lewis Sherman. Disability, August 11, 1861.
George Kester. To brigade band, November 1, 1862.
Urias Fink. To Signal Corps.
Julius Wideman. To Insane Asylum.
Richard Reinholt. October 30, 1861.
Daniel Folk. November 11, 1861.
Reuben Homan. December, 1861.
John Randenbush. November 16, 1862.
Jesse Wise. July 19, 1863.
ORGANIZATION OP M COMPANY, FIRST REGIMENT PENN-
SYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY.
Company M was recruited and organized at Read-
ing, Berks county, Pennsylvania, by Captain Thomas
S Richards; George D. Hill, first lieutenant; and
210 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Albert Shollenberger, second lieutenant; and mus-
tered into the United States service at Harrisburg, on
the 5th day of August, 1861.
Left Harrisburg on the 6th day of August for
Baltimore, and here the companj^ was armed and
First Lieutenant, George D. Hill, resigning, George
D. Leaf was appointed second lieutenant, and Albert
Shollenberger, first lieutenant.
Drilling and doing orderly duty in the city, until
the 3d of October, when the company was ordered to
the Eastern Shore of Ylrginia, where, in conjunction
with the Fourth Wisconsin infantry and Nim's battery,
all under the command of Major-General Lockwood,
was engaged in scouting and picketing, until the 24th
of December, when it returned to Baltimore, and on
the Uh. of January, 1862, joined the First Pennsylvania
Reserve Crvalry, at Camp Pierpont, Virginia.
While on duty, on the Eastern Shore, made nu-
merous excursions down the bay, overhauling smug-
glers and seizing large quantities of contraband
On a scout made to Pontateague Landing, (Octo-
ber the 9th,) the company captured seven cannon,
caisons and harness; and on the 10th, at the town of
Eastville, seized another cannon and about fifteen
hundred (1500) stand of small arms.
ENLISTED MEN OF M COMPANY.
John Rothenberger, orderly sergeant. Y-et. vol.,
January 1, 1864. Wounded July 12, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 211
Will. A. Scott, first duty sergeant. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 1, 1864.
George S. Glissen, second duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
February 1, 1864. Wounded May 287 1864.
James R. At^n, third duty sergeant.
Charles B. Miller, fourth duty sergeant. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864. Wounded, August 14,1864.
E. H. Britton, fifth duty sergeant. Wounded at New
Hope Church, JSTovember 2T, 1863. Yet. vol.,
February 1, 1864.
Henry P. Smith, quartermaster sergeant. Wounded
December 12, 1862, at Fredericksburg, Ya.
Frederick Munson, commissary sergeant. Wounded
at Culpepper, September 13, 1863.
A. Shollenberger, first corporal. Yet. vol., February
Henry F. Williams, second corporal. Prisoner, June
10, 1862. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Anthony Wolf, third corporal. Yet. vol., February
Charles Morrisy, fourth corporal. Yet. vol., Febru-
ary 1, 1864. Prisoner, June 24, 1864.
Edward L. McGinley, fifth corporal. Yet. vol., Feb-
ruary 1, 1864.
Shollenberger, D. B.
Confer, N. F. Wounded at' Falmouth, April 19, 1862,
and at Culpepper, September 13, 1863. Yet.
vol., February 1, 1864.
Kline, H. B.
Carpenter, E. W.
212 HISTORY OF THE FIRST REGIMENT
Harper, Wm. A. Prisoner at Brandy Station, June
Engle, Charles H. Prisoner at Brandy Station, June
' 9, 1863.
Wingard, John L. Yet. vol., February. 1, 1864.
Hawley, M. P. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Hoffman, Henry. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Britton, George H.
Brown, Samuel. Wounded, May 28, 1864.
Boyer, Thomas R.
Carter, Daniel. Yet. vol., JanusTry 1, 1864.
Casper, Peter. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Ebert Geo. W. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864. Wounded,
May 28, 1864.
Faster, George. Prisoner, August, 1862.
Fisher, James. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Geltner, Charles. Prisoner, August, 1862. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
Griffith, William. Wounded at Falmouth, Ya., April
18, 1862. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Gable John P.
Harrighan, David. Wounded at Brandy Station,
January 9, and at IS^ew Hope Church, Ya.,
November 2t, 1863.
Kline, George W. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
PENNSYLVANIA RESERVE CAVALRY. 213
Leeds, William. Wounded at Brandy Station, June
9, 1863. Yet. vol., February 26, 1864.
Lindenmuth, N. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Lose, Mcholas H. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Martin, Thomas A. Wounded at Falmouth April 18,
and at Fredericksburg, December 12, 1862.
McEwen, John. Prisoner, September 6, 1862.
McGinley, Daniel. Yet. vol., Februray 1, 1864.
Miller, George. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Muthart, E. F. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Musser, Geo. W. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Miller, Don Corles
Paulis, George. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Phillips, Monroe. Wounded at Culpepper, Ya., Sep-
tember, 13, 1863.
Rapp, Henry A. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Richards, Joseph. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Roberts, John. Yet. vol., February 19, 1864.
Scott, Charles E. Wounded at Culpepper, Ya., Sep-
13, 1863. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864.
Shealer, Augustus. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Sheets, John. Prisoner, August 11, 1862. Yet. vol.,
January 1, 1864.
Shappell, Jeremiah. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Snovel, John. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864.
Stetler, Henry. Yet. vol., February 1, 1864. Wounded,
May 28, 1864.
Strine, Robert. Yet. vol., January 1, 1864,